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Prasanna M.V.,Curtin University Australia | Chidambaram S.,Annamalai University | Shahul Hameed A.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management | Srnivasamoorthy K.,Annamalai University
Journal of Earth System Science

Water samples were collected from different formations of Gadilam river basin and analyzed to assess the major ion chemistry and suitability of water for domestic and drinking purposes. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Calcium (Ca+), Magnesium (Mg+), Bicarbonate (HCO3-), Sulphate (SO4-), Phosphate (PO4-) and Silica (H4SiO4) were determined. The geochemical study of the aquatic systems of the Gadilam river basin show that the groundwater is near-acidic to alkaline and mostly oxidizing in nature. Higher concentration of Sodium and Chloride indicates leaching of secondary salts and anthropogenic impact by industry and salt water intrusion. Spatial distribution of EC indicates anthropogenic impact in the downstream side of the basin. The concentration levels of trace metals such as Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Bromide (Br), Iodide (I) and Aluminium (Al) have been compared with the world standard. Interpretation of data shows that some trace metals such as Al, Ni and Pb exceed the acceptable limit of world standard. Geophysical study was carried out to identify the weathered zone in the hard rock and contaminated zone by anthropogenic impact in the downstream of river Gadilam. A few of the groundwater samples in the study area were found to be unsuitable for domestic and drinking purposes. © Indian Academy of Sciences. Source

Mavukkandy M.O.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Karmakar S.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Harikumar P.S.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management
Environmental Science and Pollution Research

The establishment of an efficient surface water quality monitoring (WQM) network is a critical component in the assessment, restoration and protection of river water quality. A periodic evaluation of monitoring network is mandatory to ensure effective data collection and possible redesigning of existing network in a river catchment. In this study, the efficacy and appropriateness of existing water quality monitoring network in the Kabbini River basin of Kerala, India is presented. Significant multivariate statistical techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and principal factor analysis (PFA) have been employed to evaluate the efficiency of the surface water quality monitoring network with monitoring stations as the evaluated variables for the interpretation of complex data matrix of the river basin. The main objective is to identify significant monitoring stations that must essentially be included in assessing annual and seasonal variations of river water quality. Moreover, the significance of seasonal redesign of the monitoring network was also investigated to capture valuable information on water quality from the network. Results identified few monitoring stations as insignificant in explaining the annual variance of the dataset. Moreover, the seasonal redesign of the monitoring network through a multivariate statistical framework was found to capture valuable information from the system, thus making the network more efficient. Cluster analysis (CA) classified the sampling sites into different groups based on similarity in water quality characteristics. The PCA/PFA identified significant latent factors standing for different pollution sources such as organic pollution, industrial pollution, diffuse pollution and faecal contamination. Thus, the present study illustrates that various multivariate statistical techniques can be effectively employed in sustainable management of water resources. Highlights • The effectiveness of existing river water quality monitoring network is assessed • Significance of seasonal redesign of the monitoring network is demonstrated • Rationalization of water quality parameters is performed in a statistical framework © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Thomas J.,Kerala University | Joseph S.,Kerala University | Thrivikramji K.P.,Kerala University | Abe G.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management | Kannan N.,Kerala University
Environmental Earth Sciences

The morphometric analysis of river basins represents a simple procedure to describe hydrologic and geomorphic processes operating on a basin scale. A morphometric analysis was carried out to evaluate the drainage characteristics of two adjoining, mountain river basins of the southern Western Ghats, India, Muthirapuzha River Basin (MRB) in the western slopes and Pambar River Basin (PRB) in the eastern slopes. The basins, forming a part of the Proterozoic, high-grade, Southern Granulite Terrain of the Peninsular India, are carved out of a terrain dominantly made of granite- and hornblende-biotite gneisses. The Western Ghats, forming the basin divide, significantly influences the regional climate (i. e., humid climate in MRB, while semi-arid in PRB). The Survey of India topographic maps (1:50,000) and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission digital elevation data were used as the base for delineation and analysis. Both river basins are of 6th order and comparable in basin geometry. The drainage patterns and linear alignment of the drainage networks suggest the influence of structural elements. The Rb of either basins failed to highlight the structural controls on drainage organization, which might be a result of the elongated basin shape. The irregular trends in Rb between various stream orders suggest the influence of geology and relief on drainage branching. The Dd values designate the basins as moderate- to well-drained with lower infiltration rates. The overall increasing trend of Rl between successive stream orders suggests a geomorphic maturity of either basins and confirmed by the characteristic I hyp values. The Re values imply an elongate shape for both MRB and PRB and subsequently lower vulnerability to flash floods and hence, easier flood management. The relatively higher Rr of PRB is an indicative of comparatively steeply sloping terrain and consequently higher intensity of erosion processes. Further, the derivatives of digital elevation data (slope, aspect, topographic wetness index, and stream power index), showing significant differences between MRB and PRB, are useful in soil conservation plans. The study highlighted the variation in morphometric parameters with respect to the dissimilarities in topography and climate. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Gopinath G.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

Sagar Island, situated in the east coast of India and one of the biggest deltas in Sundarban group, faces coastal erosion and degradation of coastal vegetation and various natural hazards. Erosion is mainly due to clay mining, wave activities, and the impact of river and tidal currents of Muri Ganga and Hugly Rivers. Further, the coastal zone of Sagar Island faces increasingly severe problems of rapidly growing human population, deteriorating environmental quality, and loss of critical habitats. Sagar Island has been victimized several times by tropical cyclones and influenced daily by tidal fluctuations. The island needs immediate attention on the coastal zone in order to protect the shoreline and ecosystem. The capability of satellite remote sensing to provide synoptic, repetitive, and multispectral data has proved to be very useful in the inventory and monitoring of critical coastal issues. Sagar Island and its environs are subjected to both natural and anthropogenic activities that continuously modify the region. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Prasanna M.V.,University of Technology Malaysia | Chidambaram S.,Annamalai University | Shahul Hameed A.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management | Srinivasamoorthy K.,Annamalai University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

Gadilam river basin has gained its importance due to the presence of Neyveli Lignite open cast mines and other industrial complexes. It is also due to extensive depressurization of Cuddalore aquifer, and bore wells for New Veeranam Scheme are constructed downstream of the basin. Geochemical indicators of groundwater were used to identify the chemical processes that control hydrogeochemistry. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sodium (Na+), potassium (K +), calcium (Ca+), magnesium (Mg+), bicarbonate (HCO3-), sulfate (SO4-), phosphate (PO4-), and silica (H4SiO4) were determined. Interpretation of hydrogeochemical data suggests that leaching of ions followed by weathering and anthropogenic impact controls the chemistry of the groundwater. Isotopic study reveals that recharge from meteoric source in sedimentary terrain and rock-water interaction with significant evaporation prevails in hard rock region. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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