Center for Water Resources Development and Management

Kozhikode, India

Center for Water Resources Development and Management

Kozhikode, India

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Jayakumar M.,Regional Coffee Research Station | Rajavel M.,Meteorological Center | Surendran U.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2016

A study on the variability of coffee yield of both Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora as influenced by climate parameters (rainfall (RF), maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), and mean relative humidity (RH)) was undertaken at Regional Coffee Research Station, Chundale, Wayanad, Kerala State, India. The result on the coffee yield data of 30 years (1980 to 2009) revealed that the yield of coffee is fluctuating with the variations in climatic parameters. Among the species, productivity was higher for C. canephora coffee than C. arabica in most of the years. Maximum yield of C. canephora (2040 kg ha−1) was recorded in 2003–2004 and there was declining trend of yield noticed in the recent years. Similarly, the maximum yield of C. arabica (1745 kg ha−1) was recorded in 1988–1989 and decreased yield was noticed in the subsequent years till 1997–1998 due to year to year variability in climate. The highest correlation coefficient was found between the yield of C. arabica coffee and maximum temperature during January (0.7) and between C. arabica coffee yield and RH during July (0.4). Yield of C. canephora coffee had highest correlation with maximum temperature, RH and rainfall during February. Statistical regression model between selected climatic parameters and yield of C. arabica and C. canephora coffee was developed to forecast the yield of coffee in Wayanad district in Kerala. The model was validated for years 2010, 2011, and 2012 with the coffee yield data obtained during the years and the prediction was found to be good. © 2016 ISB


Marimuthu S.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Surendran U.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management | Subbian P.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2014

Field experiments were conducted on cotton to evaluate the different cotton-based intercropping system along with balanced nutrient management practices on enhancing cotton productivity. Cropping systems have been considered as main plots and nutrient management practices have been considered as subplots. The results showed that cotton + onion system recorded the highest cotton equivalent yield (CEY) of 2052 and 1895 kg ha-1 which was on par with cotton intercropped with dhaincha, which recorded 2010 and 1894 kg of CEY ha-1 in both the seasons. Combined application of 100% recommended NPK with bioinoculants (S5) registered highest CEY in both the seasons. Cotton intercropped with dhaincha (M2) recorded highest uptake of N, P, and K. Among the nutrient management practices, application of 100% recommended NPK with bioinoculants (S5) showed highest uptake of N, P, and K. A similar trend was noticed in the post-harvest soil fertility too and it is significantly higher under cotton + dhaincha and application of 100% recommended NPK with bioinoculants treatment compared to 100% recommend NPK alone. It could be concluded from these results that crop productivity can be improved and soil fertility status can be sustained with integrated plant nutrient management practices. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Bhaskar Rao B.,Goverment Medical College | Harikumar P.S.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management | Jayakrishnan T.,Goverment Medical College | George B.,Goverment Medical College
Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2011

We investigated the physicochemical characteristics of Aedes albopictus Skuse viz. breeding sites, by examining coconut shells, tires and plastic containers in a chikungunya affected area of Calicut, India. The study design was a cross-sectional ecological type. Thirty-four water samples were collected randomly from coconut shells, tires and plastic containers. The larvae were counted and the water was examined. The mean number of larvae per 500 ml was significantly higher in coconut shells than in tires and plastic containers. A negative correlation was observed with pH and a positive correlation was seen with most other variables. Coconut shells were the preferred breeding site for Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in our study. The rich organic content, low illumination and small orifice of the coconut shells could be the reasons for this. The higher salinity of the coconut shells did not affect breeding or survival.


Prasanna M.V.,Curtin University Australia | Chidambaram S.,Annamalai University | Shahul Hameed A.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management | Srnivasamoorthy K.,Annamalai University
Journal of Earth System Science | Year: 2011

Water samples were collected from different formations of Gadilam river basin and analyzed to assess the major ion chemistry and suitability of water for domestic and drinking purposes. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Calcium (Ca+), Magnesium (Mg+), Bicarbonate (HCO3-), Sulphate (SO4-), Phosphate (PO4-) and Silica (H4SiO4) were determined. The geochemical study of the aquatic systems of the Gadilam river basin show that the groundwater is near-acidic to alkaline and mostly oxidizing in nature. Higher concentration of Sodium and Chloride indicates leaching of secondary salts and anthropogenic impact by industry and salt water intrusion. Spatial distribution of EC indicates anthropogenic impact in the downstream side of the basin. The concentration levels of trace metals such as Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Bromide (Br), Iodide (I) and Aluminium (Al) have been compared with the world standard. Interpretation of data shows that some trace metals such as Al, Ni and Pb exceed the acceptable limit of world standard. Geophysical study was carried out to identify the weathered zone in the hard rock and contaminated zone by anthropogenic impact in the downstream of river Gadilam. A few of the groundwater samples in the study area were found to be unsuitable for domestic and drinking purposes. © Indian Academy of Sciences.


Prasanna M.V.,University of Technology Malaysia | Chidambaram S.,Annamalai University | Shahul Hameed A.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management | Srinivasamoorthy K.,Annamalai University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2010

Gadilam river basin has gained its importance due to the presence of Neyveli Lignite open cast mines and other industrial complexes. It is also due to extensive depressurization of Cuddalore aquifer, and bore wells for New Veeranam Scheme are constructed downstream of the basin. Geochemical indicators of groundwater were used to identify the chemical processes that control hydrogeochemistry. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sodium (Na+), potassium (K +), calcium (Ca+), magnesium (Mg+), bicarbonate (HCO3-), sulfate (SO4-), phosphate (PO4-), and silica (H4SiO4) were determined. Interpretation of hydrogeochemical data suggests that leaching of ions followed by weathering and anthropogenic impact controls the chemistry of the groundwater. Isotopic study reveals that recharge from meteoric source in sedimentary terrain and rock-water interaction with significant evaporation prevails in hard rock region. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Unnikrishnan Warrier C.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management | Praveen Babu M.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management
Journal of Earth System Science | Year: 2011

Isotopic composition of monthly composite precipitation samples from Kozhikode (n = 31), a wet tropic station and Hyderabad (n = 25), a semi-arid station across southern India were studied for a period of four years from 2005 to 2008. During the study period, the Kozhikode station recorded an average rainfall of 3500 mm while the Hyderabad station showed an average rainfall of 790 mm. The average stable isotope values in precipitation at the Kozhikode station were δ 18O = -3.52‰, d-excess = 13.72‰; δ 18O = -2.94‰, d-excess = 10.57‰; and δ 18O = -7.53‰, d-excess = 13.79‰, respectively during the pre-monsoon (March-May), monsoon (June-September) and post-monsoon (October-February) seasons. For the Hyderabad station, the average stable isotope values were δ 18O = -5.88‰, d-excess = 2.34‰; δ 18O = -4.39‰, d-excess = 9.21‰; and δ 18O = -8.69‰, d-excess = 14.29‰, respectively for the three seasons. The precipitation at the two stations showed distinctive isotopic signatures. The stable isotopic composition of precipitation at the Hyderabad station showed significant variations from the global trend while the Kozhikode station almost followed the global value. These differences are mainly attributed to the latitudinal differences of the two stations coupled with the differences in climatic conditions. © Indian Academy of Sciences.


Unnikrishnan Warrier C.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management | Praveen Babu M.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management
Hydrological Processes | Year: 2012

The stable isotope analysis of all major rain events from Moinabad (MB), Rajendranagar (RN) and Osmanasagar (OS) reservoir, three closely placed locations in Hyderabad, India, were carried out during the 2005 to 2008 period. The OS station recorded the highest amount of rainfall with an average value of 1000mm, whereas the MB station recorded the lowest average rainfall of 790mm. The stable isotope (δ18O) values of the precipitation samples during these period varied from -11.43‰ to -0.03‰ for the MB station, -8.21‰ to 0.54‰ for the RN station and -11.47‰ to 0.72‰ for the OS station. The d-excess of precipitation at the three stations also showed considerable variations and revealed that the precipitation in the region undergoes significant modification through secondary evaporation during its fall. The possible causes for these observed spatial and temporal variations in amount and the isotopic composition of precipitation in a small geographical area within the city were studied. The observed variations may be attributed to the regional scale differences in water budget induced by rapid urbanisation activities in the city coupled with the differences in secondary effects undergone by the falling drops. This study elucidating changes in precipitation patterns in the city and its possible causes may largely help in its water balance calculation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Surendran S.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management | Sandeep O.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management | Joseph E.J.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2016

Magnetic treatment has remained a controversial process for antiscale treatment of industrial and domestic water treatment over the past many years. Hence a study was initiated to evaluate the magnetic treatment of irrigation water on growth and yield parameters of cow pea and brinjal using pot and field experiments. Also, the impact of magnetic treatment on water properties and soil moisture were also evaluated. Under pot experiment, the treatments tried are normal water, hard water 150 and 300 ppm, saline water 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm of both control and magnetic treated solutions, respectively. Two permanent magnets with the strength of 1800–2000 G was used. The results showed that magnetic treatment of irrigation water types led to an improvement in crop growth and yield parameters of cow pea. Magnetic treatments tend to reduce electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and salinity levels of all solutions except normal irrigation water, whereas a definite trend of increase in pH was noticed for all the treatments. Soil moisture study results showed that the differences in soil moisture for days 1–3 after irrigation with magnetized irrigation water were lesser than those for the control solutions. Irrigation with magnetized irrigation water caused higher soil moisture compared with the control for different solution of saline and hard water respectively. In the field experiment with brinjal also the magnetic treatment of normal and saline water improved the yield by 25.8 and 17.0% over control. Scanning electron microscope image analysis results confirmed that under magnetic treated hard water, there was variation in the crystal structure of calcium carbonate. The length of these crystals is more when compared to control solutions. These results indicated the beneficial effect of magnetically treated irrigation water on growth and yield of crops, the properties of water and confirmed the possibility of using low quality water for agriculture. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Gopinath G.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2010

Sagar Island, situated in the east coast of India and one of the biggest deltas in Sundarban group, faces coastal erosion and degradation of coastal vegetation and various natural hazards. Erosion is mainly due to clay mining, wave activities, and the impact of river and tidal currents of Muri Ganga and Hugly Rivers. Further, the coastal zone of Sagar Island faces increasingly severe problems of rapidly growing human population, deteriorating environmental quality, and loss of critical habitats. Sagar Island has been victimized several times by tropical cyclones and influenced daily by tidal fluctuations. The island needs immediate attention on the coastal zone in order to protect the shoreline and ecosystem. The capability of satellite remote sensing to provide synoptic, repetitive, and multispectral data has proved to be very useful in the inventory and monitoring of critical coastal issues. Sagar Island and its environs are subjected to both natural and anthropogenic activities that continuously modify the region. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Madhava Chandran K.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management | Surendran U.,Center for Water Resources Development and Management
International Journal of Plant Production | Year: 2016

Adoption of drip irrigation in Kerala State of India is very low and potential exists to increase its adoption in the State. A field survey was conducted in two districts to determine the major factors influencing farmers’ adoption of drip irrigation and to draw conclusions that will help in developing policy and institutional interventions to encourage the adoption. The results indicated that adoption index of farmers is higher in Kozhikode, when compared with the Thrissur district. However, with respect to different crops, adoption index is not statistically significant. Socioeconomic characteristics such as age, education, experience, land holding size, etc. have a positive influence on drip irrigation adoption index by farmers. Farmers have realized yield improvement in the range of about 13% to 47% through drip irrigation, when compared to surface method of irrigation for arecanut, coconut and nutmeg. High productivity and income from cultivation of crops like coconut, arecanut and nutmeg have acted as an incentive to adopt the costly system of drip irrigation in the case of both Kozhikode and Thrissur farmers. The number of drip irrigation components and type of emitters indicated a significant and linear response for drip irrigation adoption. The reported constraints experienced by farmers include rainfall, clogging of drippers, high initial cost, inadequate subsidy, difficulty in getting subsidy, etc. This information will help to prioritize the factors that affect adoption decisions and provide insights for improving the crop and water productivity. © 2016, Gorgan Univ Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. All rights reserved.

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