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Stillwater, OK, United States

Ayalew S.,Center for Veterinary Health science | Confer A.W.,Center for Veterinary Health science | Shrestha B.,Center for Veterinary Health science | Payton M.E.,Oklahoma State University
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2012

In this study, we describe a rapid microtiter serum bactericidal assay (RMSBA) that can be used to measure the functionality of immune sera. It quantifies bactericidal activity of immune sera in the presence of complement against a homologous bacterium, M. haemolytica in this case. There is high correlation between data from RMSBA and standard complement-mediated bacterial killing assay (r. =. 0.756; p. <. 0.0001). The RMSBA activity of sera can be generated in less than 5. h instead of overnight incubation. RMSBA costs substantially less in terms of time, labor, and resources and is highly reproducible. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Taylor J.D.,Center for Veterinary Health science | Fulton R.W.,Center for Veterinary Health science | Lehenbauer T.W.,Center for Veterinary Health science | Lehenbauer T.W.,University of California at Davis | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Veterinary Journal | Year: 2010

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common and costly disease of beef cattle in North America. Despite extensive research, industry practices are often more informed by dogma than by fact. Frequently advocated interventions, including vaccination, various processing procedures, and nutritional manipulation, have limited impact on morbidity and mortality. Evidence for use of oral antimicrobials, either in feed or water, appears to be equivocal. In contrast, preconditioning and metaphylaxis have significant scientific evidence of efficacy, with weaning prior to sale potentially being the most important component of preconditioning. The inability to reach more definitive conclusions in preventing BRD may be attributable to difficulties in investigating the disease. Study challenges include potential for extensive confounding, tremendous variability, the multi-factorial nature of the disease, and inadequate methods for diagnosis. Source

Venzal J.M.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Nava S.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Mangold A.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Guglielmone A.A.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2012

Rhipicephalus australis Fuller, the Australian cattle tick, is reinstated and the adults and larvae redescribed from material collected in Australia. This long ignored boophilid was previously known as R. microplus Canestrini for specimens reported in Australia and New Caledonia. The adults of R. australis are easily recognized by a combination of characters, such as the ventro-medial spurs in the palpal segments of the male, and the abundant, plumose, pale white setae on the dorsum of the female. Other details, such as coxal and adanal shields are more variable among different populations and may lead to incorrect determinations. Larvae of R. australis are clearly smaller than those of R. microplus. The use of principal components analysis on body measurements leads to a clear separation of larvae of both taxa. A phylogenetic analysis based on 12S- and 16S-rDNA gene sequences supports the conspecificity of the neotype material on which the reinstatement of the species is proposed, and of the specimens used for previous interspecific crosses. R. australis is now known to be present in Australia, New Caledonia, the island of Borneo, Philippines, Sumatra, Java, New Guinea, Cambodia, and Tahiti. Both R. microplus and R. australis coexist in some countries in southeastern Asia. Given the extreme importance of these ticks for the cattle industry, field data on their distribution in the region are required to know the actual range of these species and to understand the evolution of the group. © 2012 Entomological Society of America. Source

Velguth K.E.,Center for Veterinary Health science | Velguth K.E.,IDEXX Laboratories | Payton M.E.,Oklahoma State University | Hoover J.P.,Center for Veterinary Health science
Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2010

To determine whether a proportional relationship exists between hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration and pack cell volume (PCV) in avian blood samples, Hgb concentration measured by a point-of-care portable hemoglobinometer and corresponding PCV were determined in blood samples collected from 128 birds comprising 13 avian orders. For all birds evaluated and pooled across orders, a significant and consistent relationship was found between Hgb concentration and PCV, expressed as Hgb 0.304 × PCV + 0.461. To determine whether the relationship of PCV and Hgb differs, 9 avian orders with n ≥ 8 samples per order were analyzed by linear regression. Individual slopes for the 9 orders did not differ significantly (P = .44), indicating that a single slope can be used to model the avian Hgb to PCV relationship for these taxonomic orders. A single intercept can also be used, with the exception of order Phoenicopteriformes, which was the only intercept that was significantly different from 0 (P = .01). These results indicate that a simplified relationship of Hgb (g/dL) = 0.30 × PCV provides a reasonable estimate of Hgb concentration from the PCV of birds from the orders Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Falconiformes, Galliformes, Passeriformes, Psittaciformes, Sphenisciformes, and Strigiformes, but a separate relationship of Hgb =0.217 × PCV + 6.69 might be warranted for the order Phoenicopteriformes. © 2010 by the Association of Avian Veterinarians. Source

Chandra L.C.,Oklahoma State University | Smith B.J.,Oklahoma State University | Clarke S.L.,Oklahoma State University | Marlow D.,Center for Veterinary Health science | And 2 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

Shiitake mushrooms (SMs) have been used in Asia for treatment and/or prevention of chronic diseases and hypercholesterolemia. Previously, we observed a diet supplemented with 5% SM resulted in a twofold increase in plasma IL-6 levels in DBA arthritic mice. An elevation in plasma IL-6 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis fatty liver disease. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SM supplemented-diet on hepatic steatosis. In study 1, eight-week old female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the following groups for 6. weeks: the AIN-93 diet; 5% SM, and 5% white button mushroom (WBM) supplemented diets (12/group). In study 2, mice were fed either the AIN-93 diet or SM (20/group). After 6. weeks, 13 mice fed SM diet were given the AIN93 diet for 8 or 15. days. Unlike other groups, all mice fed the SM diet developed fatty liver (mean histopathology score 4.5 vs <1 in the other groups; p<0.001) without fibrosis and inflammation. Fifteen days post withdrawal of SM completely normalized liver histology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that chronic consumption of SM is associated with the development of fatty liver. The mechanism by which SM causes hepatic steatosis warrants further investigation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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