Center for Veterinary Biologics

Ames, IA, United States

Center for Veterinary Biologics

Ames, IA, United States
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Ingebritson A.L.,Center for Veterinary Biologics | Roth J.A.,Iowa State University | Hauer P.J.,National Veterinary Services Laboratories
Vaccine | Year: 2010

A collection of swine, fish, and cetacean Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strains representing 16 serotypes was analyzed for possession of the three currently recognized surface protective antigen (spa)-types: spaA, spaB, and spaC. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and Western blotting with a SpaA-specific monoclonal antibody demonstrated that spa-type is not confined to specific serotype groups. In particular, the spa-type of strains of aquatic origin was more variable than those of terrestrial origin, and possessed the distinct ability to express more than one spa. In a cross-protection study, mice immunized with an E. rhusiopathiae serotype 2 SpaA-type strain and challenged with various E. rhusiopathiae isolates were completely protected against strains exhibiting a single homologous spa, but variably protected against strains possessing a heterologous spa or those harboring more than one spa-type.

Thiele T.L.,Center for Veterinary Biologics | Stuber T.P.,National Veterinary Services Laboratories | Hauer P.J.,National Veterinary Services Laboratories
Vaccine | Year: 2013

Clostridium sordellii is a Gram positive anaerobic bacterium that causes multiple disease syndromes in both humans and animals. As with many clostridial pathogens, toxins contribute to the virulence of C. sordellii. Two large toxins have been identified: a lethal toxin (TcsL) and a hemorrhagic toxin (TcsH) which are similar in structure and function to Clostridium difficile toxin B (TcdB) and toxin A (TcdA), respectively. While TcdA, TcdB, and TcsL have been extensively studied, relatively little is known about TcsH. This study elucidated the TcsH gene sequence using whole genome sequencing, compared the genotype with toxin expression of 52 C. sordellii strains, and examined the role of TcsH in batch release potency tests required for veterinary vaccines licensed in the United States and other testing utilizing WHO standard antitoxin. Data from this study will assist in future research to clarify the TcsH contribution to the pathogenesis of C. sordellii infections and may aid in the development of improved vaccines. © 2013.

Kulpa-Eddy J.,Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service | Dusek D.,Center for Veterinary Biologics
Procedia in Vaccinology | Year: 2011

Biologics are usually produced from live organisms, and the manufacturing process often involves a degree of natural variability. Characterization of biologics such as vaccines is inherently difficult due to the complex molecular structure of the antigens they contain and the presence of excipients such as preservatives and adjuvants that can interfere with testing. Therefore, each batch, lot, or serial produced must be tested before market release to ensure that the product complies with regulatory standards. This batch release testing emphasizes quality control of the final product and may be characterized by an extensive use of laboratory animals. The consistency approach is based upon the principle that the quality of a biologic is the result of the strict application of a quality system and consistent production. Subsequent batches are determined to be similar to clinically evaluated batches and therefore acceptable for release through the in-process testing that comprises this quality system. The European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) organized international workshops in 2006 and 2010 to discuss the consistency approach and its potential to reduce the number of animals used in testing of biological products. This paper provides an overview of these workshops. © 2011.

Walker A.,Center for Veterinary Biologics | Srinivas G.B.,Center for Veterinary Biologics
Biologicals | Year: 2013

Hamsters are routinely infected with virulent Leptospira for two purposes in the regulation of biologics: the performance of Codified potency tests and maintenance of challenge culture for the Codified potency tests. Options for reducing animal use in these processes were explored in a plenary lecture at the "International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Leptospira Vaccine Potency Testing: State of the Science and the Way Forward" held at the Center for Veterinary Biologics in September 2012. The use of validated invitro potency assays such as those developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for Leptospira (L.) canicola, Leptospira grippotyphosa, Leptospira pomona, and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae rather than the Codified hamster vaccination-challenge assay was encouraged. Alternatives such as reduced animal numbers in the hamster vaccination-challenge testing were considered for problematic situations. Specifically, the merits of sharing challenge controls, reducing group sizes, and eliminating animals for concurrent challenge dose titration were assessed. Options for maintaining virulent, stable cultures without serial passage through hamsters or with decreased hamster use were also discussed. The maintenance of virulent Leptospira without the use of live animals is especially difficult since a reliable means to maintain virulence after multiple invitro passages has not yet been identified. © 2013.

Srinivas G.B.,Center for Veterinary Biologics | Walker A.,Center for Veterinary Biologics | Rippke B.,Center for Veterinary Biologics
Biologicals | Year: 2013

Batch-release potency testing of leptospiral vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) historically was conducted through animal vaccination-challenge models. The hamster vaccination-challenge assay was Codified in 1974 for bacterins containing Leptospira pomona, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, and Leptospira canicola, and in 1975 for bacterins containing Leptospira grippotyphosa. In brief, 10 hamsters are vaccinated with a specified dilution of bacterin. After a holding period, the vaccinated hamsters, as well as nonvaccinated controls, are challenged with virulent Leptospira and observed for mortality. Eighty percent of vaccinated hamsters must survive in the face of a valid challenge. The high cost of the Codified tests, in terms of monetary expense and animal welfare, prompted the Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) to develop ELISA alternatives for them. Potency tests for other serogroups, such as Leptospira hardjo-bovis, that do not have Codified requirements for potency testing continue to be examined on a case-by-case basis. © 2013.

Ruby K.W.,Center for Veterinary Biologics | Srinivas G.B.,Center for Veterinary Biologics
Biologicals | Year: 2013

Historically, potency testing of bacterins containing Leptospira involved a hamster vaccination-challenge assay. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has long recognized that an invitro system has several inherent advantages over the animal model. This is a review of the work performed at the USDA to replace the hamster vaccination-challenge model used to test Leptospira bacterins. The work covered a span of approximately 20 years and resulted in the development of USDA monoclonal antibody based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the quantitation of antigen in bacterins containing Leptospira serogroups canicola, icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona, and grippotyphosa. The monoclonal antibodies used in the assay a) recognize lipopolysaccharide-like epitopes on the surface of the whole cell, b) agglutinate the homologous leptospiral serovars but do not agglutinate heterologous leptospiral serovars or heterologous bacterial species, and c) passively protect hamsters against a homologous challenge but fail to protect hamsters against heterologous challenges. Once developed, the performance of each ELISA was evaluated at the USDA followed by industry evaluation. Serials that passed the hamster vaccination-challenge assay yielded ELISA relative potency values of 1.0 or greater. These ELISAs have been shown to be a reproducible, sensitive, specific, and inexpensive alternative to the current Codified hamster potency assay. © 2013.

Vaccination of domestic animals against rabies creates a critical barrier between wildlife reservoirs and the human population. Ensuring these vaccines are potent and effective is paramount in preventing human exposure to this deadly and costly disease. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) test is, at present, the most widely used and internationally recommended potency assay for batch testing inactivated rabies vaccines. This test has numerous inherent limitations and disadvantages, including a lack of precision. The NIH test requires a large number of animals and involves unrelieved pain and suffering. A relevant in vitro assay should provide a more accurate, reproducible, rapid, safe, and humane rabies vaccine potency test.

The Virus-Serum-Toxin Act of 1913 provides the legal basis for the regulation of veterinary biological products in the United States, and the USDA's Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) has the authority to issue licenses and permits for such products. The law was intended to establish standards and control the importation of products into the United States as well as the domestic distribution of products, assuring the purity, safety, potency, and efficacy of veterinary biological products. Prelicensing data evaluation procedures are designed to assess the quality of each product and support product label claims. Under the standard licensing process, this spectrum of evaluation includes complete characterization of seed material and ingredients, and laboratory- and host-animal safety and efficacy studies. Post-license testing includes batch tests for purity, safety, and potency. As part of the production and testing of regulated products, procedures involving animals are used to validate product requirements for safety, potency, and efficacy. Incorporating alternative methods to reduce, refine, and replace the use of animals in the development and testing of veterinary biological products has been a strategic goal for the CVB for several decades, and current licensing processes and policies are designed to support and encourage the shift from animal-based methods to alternative practices while ensuring that regulated products continue to be safe and effective. © 2011.

Kachman M.T.,University of Michigan | Hurley M.C.,University of Michigan | Thiele T.,Center for Veterinary Biologics | Srinivas G.,Center for Veterinary Biologics | Aronoff D.M.,University of Michigan
Anaerobe | Year: 2010

Clostridium sordellii is a toxin-producing anaerobic bacillus that causes severe infections in humans and livestock. C. sordellii infections can be accompanied by a highly lethal toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Lethal toxin (TcsL) is an important mediator of TSS. We recently obtained a clinical strain of C. sordellii (DA-108) lacking the TcsL-encoding tcsL gene, which was not fatal in rodent models of infection, in contrast to a tcsL+ reference strain (ATCC9714). Protein preparations derived from cell-free, stationary phase cultures obtained from ATCC9714 were lethal when injected into mice, while those obtained from DA-108 were not, a difference that was attributed to the unique presence of TcsL in the ATCC9714-derived proteins. We questioned whether there were other major differences between the extracellular proteomes of these two strains, apart from TcsL. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was conducted using crude cell-free supernatants from these strains and 14 differentially expressed proteins were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis. Nine of these 14 proteins were more highly expressed by DA-108 and 5 by ATCC9714. Twelve of the 14 proteins isolated from the 2-D gels were putatively identified by mass spectrometry. Several of these proteins were identical, possibly reflecting enzymatic cleavage, degradation, and/or post-translational modifications. Excluding identical sequences, only 5 unique proteins were identified. Four proteins (ferredoxin-nitrite reductase; formate acetyltransferase; Translation Elongation Factor G; and purine nucleoside phosphorylase) were over-expressed by DA-108 and 1 (N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase) by ATCC9714. These results support the concept that TcsL is the major determinant of C. sordellii TSS during infection. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ingebritson A.L.,Center for Veterinary Biologics | Gibbs C.P.,Center for Veterinary Biologics | Tong C.,Center for Veterinary Biologics | Srinivas G.B.,Center for Veterinary Biologics
Letters in Applied Microbiology | Year: 2015

A rapid test method was developed for detecting mycoplasma contamination in veterinary biological products. The method reduces testing time by 2 weeks and shows comparable sensitivity to the current agar-based detection model. The primary goals for the development of the test were to reduce the testing time, incorporate a method that was easily adaptable across the veterinary biologics industry and reduce the subjective interpretation of results. We found that biological enrichment is necessary to maintain sensitivity of the detection method when compared to the standard culture-based test and that periodic sampling of enrichment cultures is essential to detect a wide variety of mycoplasma species that may be present as contaminants. The PCR detection method is comparable to the agar-based model and can reduce the overall testing time by up to 14 days.

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