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Andreadis T.G.,Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2012

Mosquitoes within the Culex pipiens complex have been implicated as major vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America due to their seasonal abundance, vector competence and high field infection rates. However, the role of Cx. p. pipiens complex mosquitoes in enzootic amplification of WNV among avian hosts and epidemic transmission to humans varies throughout its geographical distribution. In the northeastern United States, Cx. p. pipiens is recognized as the primary enzootic vector responsible for amplification of virus among wild bird populations. However, because this mosquito is strongly ornithophilic, its role in transmission to humans appears to be more limited in this region. In the north central and Mid-Atlantic States by contrast, Cx. p. pipiens shows an increased affinity for human hosts and has been incriminated as a key bridge vector. In southern regions of the United States, Culex p. quinquefasciatus are more opportunistic feeders, and are thought to be principal enzootic and epidemic vectors. In western regions of the United States where Culex tarsalis predominates, especially in rural areas, Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus play roles that are more limited and are recognized as secondary vectors. In the southwestern United States Cx. p. quinquefasciatus also appears to be the predominant vector in urban habitats, but only a secondary vector in more rural environs. The direct involvement of Cx. p. pipiens form molestus in WNV transmission is largely unknown, but human-biting Cx. p. pipiens are more likely to have a probability of genetic ancestry with Cx. p. pipiens form molestus. The detection of WNV from overwintering populations of diapausing Cx. p. pipiens and non-diapausing Cx. p. quinquefaciatus and their role in local overwintering of WNV are addressed. © 2012 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.

Anderson J.F.,Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases | Cowles R.S.,U.S. Department of Soil and Water
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

Relative increases of bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., populations are probably due in large measure to their resistance to pyrethroids, which have been used extensively against urban pests. A Connecticut population of bed bugs was assessed for sensitivity to pyrethroids and exposed to commonly-used commercial insecticides applied to various substrates on which the residues were allowed to age for 024 wk. Type I and type II pyrethroids differed in toxicity when applied at a high dosage (1 g) per bed bug. Some type II pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, -cyhalothrin, cis-cypermethrin, and deltamethrin) caused >80% mortality, whereas exposure to type I pyrethroids caused <5% mortality over 72 h (with one exception, pyrethrins caused 23% mortality). Dust products were not affected by residue aging; mortality response over time of exposure closely fit (R2 > 0.95) an exponential rise to a maximum model from which the survival half-life (S1/2) was calculated directly. Tempo Dust (Bayer Environmental Science, Montvale, NJ) killed bed bugs relatively quickly, as did Syloid 244 (Grace Davison, Columbia, MD) and Drione (Bayer Environmental Science, Montvale, NJ) on hardboard and mattress fabric substrates (S1/2 < 1 d); DeltaDust (Bayer Environmental Science, Montvale, NJ) provided a relatively slow kill (S1/2 ≈ 3.5 d). The sprayable pyrethroids, Cyonara 9.7 (Insecticide Control solutions, Pasadena, TX) and D-Force HPX Aerosol 0.06% (Waterbury Companies, Waterbury, CT), displayed reduced residual toxicity as they aged; the mortality was <50% on some substrates after 4 d. Desiccant dusts, with their physical mode of action and long residual activity, appear to be superior to sprayable pyrethroid products for killing bed bugs. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.

Hardstone M.C.,Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases | Andreadis T.G.,Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2012

The spread of exotic mosquito species into new environments can introduce shifts in mosquito populations and potentially alter public health risks to mosquito-borne diseases. The successful establishment of exotic species may occur due to their competitive advantage over other cohabitating species. We hypothesized that the recently introduced exotic mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) would be a more effective competitor than Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett) and Aedes triseriatus (Say), and an equal competitor to Culex pipiens (L.) based on larval abundance data within tire habitats. Impacts of competition were measured using the larval developmental rate and survival of larvae, adult mortality, wing length, and sex ratio. We found that intraspecific competition acted strongest against Ae. japonicus versus the other three resident mosquito species by delaying larval development and increasing adult mortality. Interspecific competition was generally weak and significant main effects were only detected for species and density. Overall, our results show that larval competition between Ae. japonicus and the three resident species was weak when present, indicating that other ecological or behavioral factors may be influencing the invasion success for Ae. japonicus in North America. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.

Anderson J.F.,Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases | Main A.J.,American University in Cairo | Cheng G.,Yale University | Ferrandino F.J.,U.S. Department of Soil and Water | Fikrig E.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012

Culex tarsalis is a superior horizontal and vertical vector of West Nile virus (WNV) compared with Culex salinarius. Culex salinarius transmitted WNV genotype NY99 (CT 2741-99 strain) horizontally to suckling mice at significantly lower rates than Cx. tarsalis on Days 8, 9, 10, and 12 post-infection, and Cx. salinarius transmitted WNV genotype NY99 to offspring at a lower vertical transmission infection rate than Cx. tarsalis. Culex tarsalis transmitted WNV genotypes NY99 and WN02 (CT S0084-08 strain) with equal efficiency. Daily percent horizontal transmission of genotype NY99 by Cx. tarsalis-infected per os and by intra-thoracic infection was not significantly different from daily transmission of genotype WN02 from Days 5-23 and Days 2-9 post-infection, respectively. Our findings do not support the previously published hypothesis that genotype NY99 was replaced in the New World by WN02 because of a shorter extrinsic incubation of WN02. Copyright © 2012 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Anderson J.F.,Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases | Armstrong P.M.,Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012

A total of 30 Powassan virus (POWV) isolates from Ixodes scapularis collected from Bridgeport and North Branford, CT in 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012 and one earlier isolate from Ixodes cookei collected in Old Lyme, CT in 1978 were characterized by phylogenetic analysis of their envelope gene sequences. Powassan virus sequences segregated into two major groups termed the deer tick virus (DTV) and Powassan (POW) lineages. The lineage from I. cookei was POW. The remaining viruses from I. scapularis grouped with the DTV lineage. Powassan viruses from Bridgeport were nearly identical and clustered with a virus strain from a human in New York. Viruses from North Branford were homogeneous and grouped with viruses from Massachusetts, northwestern Connecticut, and Ontario. These findings suggest that POWV was independently introduced into these geographical locations in Connecticut and maintained focally in their respective environments. An improved method of isolation of POWV in vitro is described. Copyright © 2012 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

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