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Dagan R.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Poolman J.,Glaxosmithkline | Siegrist C.-A.,Center for Vaccinology and Neonatal Immunology
Vaccine | Year: 2010

Bacterial polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Haemophilus influenzae type b [Hib], pneumococcal and meningococcal conjugates) have revolutionized pediatric vaccination strategies. The widely used carrier proteins are tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid (DT) and diphtheria toxoid variant CRM197 protein, DT conjugates being in general less immunogenic. Multivalent conjugates using TT were found to be at risk for reduced polysaccharide responses, whilst multivalent CRM197 conjugates are at lower risk for this, but may be at higher risk of inducing bystander interference, particularly affecting Hib and hepatitis B immune responses. Novel carriers avoiding these issues could enable the further development of pediatric schedules and combinations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Mastelic B.,Center for Vaccinology and Neonatal Immunology | Ahmed S.,Novartis | Egan W.M.,504 Carnegie Center | Del Giudice G.,Novartis | And 7 more authors.
Biologicals | Year: 2010

For decades, the search for new vaccine adjuvants has been largely empirical. A series of new adjuvants and related formulations are now emerging that are acting through identified immunological mechanisms. Understanding adjuvant mechanism of action is crucial for vaccine design, since this allows for directing immune responses towards efficacious disease-specific effector mechanisms and appropriate memory. It is also of great importance to build new paradigms for assessing adjuvant safety at development stages and at regulatory level. This report reflects the conclusions of a group of scientists from academia, regulatory agencies and industry who attended a conference, organized by the International Association for Biologicals (IABS), on the mode of action of adjuvants on 29-30 April 2010 in Bethesda, Maryland, USA, particularly focusing on how understanding adjuvants mode of action can impact on the assessment of vaccine safety and help to develop target-specific vaccines. More information on the conference output can be found on the IABS website, http://www.iabs.org/. © 2010. Source


Blanchard-Rohner G.,University of Sfax | Meier S.,University of Sfax | Bel M.,Center for Vaccinology and Neonatal Immunology | Bel M.,Geneva Lab | And 6 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Pregnant women and infants are at higher risk of complications secondary to influenza infection. Immunization during pregnancy facilitates protection of the neonates through passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed during the post-H1N1 pandemic winter season of 2010/2011 in Geneva, Switzerland. We measured antibody titers against the seasonal influenza A H1N1, H3N2 and B 2010/2011 strains by hemagglutination inhibition in the umbilical cord blood of newborns born to vaccinated and nonvaccinated mothers. Seroprotection was defined as a hemagglutination inhibition titer.40. Results: A total of 188 women were enrolled, 101 of whom had been vaccinated with a nonadjuvanted influenza vaccine (all during the second or third trimester) and the other 87 had not. Among newborns of vaccinated women, 84.86% showed seroprotective levels depending on the strain. In comparison, seroprotection rates were significantly lower in babies of nonvaccinated women (29.33%, P < 0.001). Adjusting for various confounding factors and applying multivariate regression analysis, vaccination during pregnancy.2 weeks before delivery increased geometric mean titers in umbilical cord blood 5.17 times and seroprotection rates 5.8.34.4 times, depending on the strain and the interval between vaccination and delivery. Vaccinating pregnant women only 2.4 weeks before delivery was still more effective than no vaccination at all (geometric mean titers increased 6.8.11.1 times and seroprotection rates increased 5.8.34.4 times compared with nonvaccinated women). Conclusions: Influenza vaccination at any time during the second and third trimester of pregnancy, but at least 15 days before delivery, confers seroprotection to many neonates. © 2013 Lippincott Williams &Wilkins. Source

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