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Alison M.R.,Center for Tumour Biology | Lin W.-R.,Chang Gung University
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2016

The liver's ability to regenerate is indisputable; for example, after a two-thirds partial hepatectomy in rats all residual hepatocytes can divide, questioning the need for a specific stem cell population. On the other hand, there is a potential stem cell compartment in the canals of Hering, giving rise to ductular reactions composed of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) when the liver's ability to regenerate is hindered by replicative senescence, but the functional relevance of this response has been questioned. Several papers have now clarified regenerative mechanisms operative in the mouse liver, suggesting that the liver is possibly unrivalled in its versatility to replace lost tissue. Under homeostatic conditions a perivenous population of clonogenic hepatocytes operates, whereas during chronic damage a minor population of periportal clonogenic hepatocytes come to the fore, while the ability of HPCs to completely replace the liver parenchyma has now been shown. © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Tuccitto A.,Unit of Immunotherapy of Human TumorsFondazione Istituto Nazionale TumoriMilan Italy | Tazzari M.,Unit of Immunotherapy of Human TumorsFondazione Istituto Nazionale TumoriMilan Italy | Beretta V.,Unit of Immunotherapy of Human TumorsFondazione Istituto Nazionale TumoriMilan Italy | Rini F.,Unit of Immunotherapy of Human TumorsFondazione Istituto Nazionale TumoriMilan Italy | And 11 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2016

Melanoma is a highly heterogeneous tumor for which recent evidence supports a model of dynamic stemness. Melanoma cells might temporally acquire tumor-initiating properties or switch from a status of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) to a more differentiated one depending on the tumor context. However, factors driving these functional changes are still unknown. We focused on the role of cyto/chemokines in shaping TICs isolated directly from tumor specimens of two melanoma patients, namely Me14346S and Me15888S. We analyzed the secretion profile of TICs and of their corresponding melanoma differentiated cells and we tested the ability of cyto/chemokines to influence TIC self-renewal and differentiation. We found that TICs, grown in vitro as melanospheres, had a complex secretory profile as compared to their differentiated counterparts. Some factors, such as CCL-2 and IL-8, also produced by adherent melanoma cells and melanocytes did not influence TIC properties. Conversely, IL-6, released by differentiated cells, reduced TIC self-renewal and induced TIC differentiation while IL-10, produced by Me15888S, strongly promoted TIC self-renewal through paracrine/autocrine actions. Complete neutralization of IL-10 activity by gene silencing and antibody-mediated blocking of the IL-10Rα was required to sensitize Me15888S to IL-6-induced differentiation. For the first time these results show that functional heterogeneity of melanoma could be directly influenced by inflammatory and suppressive soluble factors, with IL-6 favoring TIC differentiation, and IL-10 supporting TIC self-renewal. Thus, understanding the tumor microenvironment (TME) role in modulating melanoma TIC phenotype is fundamental to identifying novel therapeutic targets to achieve long-lasting regression of metastatic melanoma. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

Lin W.-R.,Chang Gung University | Lim S.-N.,Chang Gung University | Yen T.-H.,Chang Gung University | Alison M.R.,Center for Tumour Biology
BioMed Research International | Year: 2016

This study aimed to understand the role of IL-10 secreted from bone marrow (BM) in a mouse model of pancreatic fibrosis. The severity of cerulein-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and the frequency of BM-derived myofibroblasts were evaluated in the pancreas of mice receiving either a wild-type (WT) BM or an IL-10 knockout (KO) BM transplantation. The area of collagen deposition increased significantly in the 3 weeks after cerulein cessation in mice with an IL-10 KO BM transplant (13.7 ± 0.6% and 18.4 ± 1.1%, p < 0.05), but no further increase was seen in WT BM recipients over this time. The percentage of BM-derived myofibroblasts also increased in the pancreas of the IL-10 KO BM recipients after cessation of cerulein (6.7 ± 1.1% and 11.9 ± 1.3%, p < 0.05), while this figure fell in WT BM recipients after cerulein withdrawal. Furthermore, macrophages were more numerous in the IL-10 KO BM recipients than the WT BM recipients after cerulein cessation (23.2 ± 2.3 versus 15.3 ± 1.7 per HPF, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the degree of fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and the number of BM-derived myofibroblasts were significantly different between IL-10 KO BM and WT BM transplanted mice, highlighting a likely role of IL-10 in pancreatitis. © 2016 Wey-Ran Lin et al.

Catchpole S.,Kings College London | Spencer-Dene B.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Spencer-Dene B.,Imperial College London | Hall D.,Kings College London | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2011

The four members of the JARID1/KDM5 family of proteins, a sub-group of the larger ARID (AT rich DNA binding domain) family, have been shown to demethylate trimethylated lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4me3), a chromatin mark associated with actively transcribed genes. In some lower organisms a single homologue of JARID1 is found, and functions of the four proteins found in mice and humans may be specific or overlapping. To investigate the function of the JARID1B protein we examined the effects of deletion of the gene in mice. Systemic knock out of Jarid1b resulted in early embryonic lethality, whereas mice not expressing the related Jarid1A gene are viable and fertile. A second mouse strain expressing a Jarid1b gene with the ARID domain deleted was viable and fertile but displayed a mammary phenotype, where terminal end bud development and side branching was delayed at puberty and in early pregnancy. Since development of terminal end buds are completely dependent on signalling from the estrogen receptor (ERα), we investigated the expression of a target gene (progesterone receptor) in the ΔARID mouse and found levels to be reduced as compared to wild-type. JARID1B is widely expressed in ER+ breast cancers and breast cancer cell lines, and interaction with ERα was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitations in cells transfected with tagged ERα and JARID1B genes. Down-regulation of expression of JARID1B using shRNAi in MCF-7 cells resulted in a dramatic decrease in E2 stimulated tumour growth in nude mice. The data demonstrate a specific role for Jarid1B in early embryonic development, in the development and differentiation of the normal mammary gland, and in estrogen induced growth of ER+ breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Spandidos Publications Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hulit J.,Yeshiva University | Hulit J.,Center for Tumour Biology | Kedrin D.,Yeshiva University | Gligorijevic B.,Yeshiva University | And 4 more authors.
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

The analysis of cancer cell behavior in the primary tumor in living animals provides an opportunity to explore the process of invasion and intravasation in the complex microenvironment that is present in vivo. In this chapter, we describe the methods that we have developed for performing intravital imaging of mammary tumors. We provide procedures for generating tumors through injection of tumor cell lines, and multiphoton imaging using a skin-flap tumor dissection and a mammary imaging window. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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