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Koyama A.,Brain Research Institute | Koyama A.,Center for Transdisciplinary Research | Sugai A.,Brain Research Institute | Kato T.,Brain Resource | And 12 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disorder. In motor neurons of ALS, TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43), a nuclear protein encoded by TARDBP, is absent from the nucleus and forms cytoplasmic inclusions. TDP-43 auto-regulates the amount by regulating the TARDBP mRNA, which has three polyadenylation signals (PASs) and three additional alternative introns within the last exon. However, it is still unclear how the autoregulatory mechanism works and how the status of autoregulation in ALS motor neurons without nuclear TDP-43 is. Here we show that TDP-43 inhibits the selection of the most proximal PAS and induces splicing of multiple alternative introns in TARDBP mRNA to decrease the amount of cytoplasmic TARDBP mRNA by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. When TDP-43 is depleted, the TARDBP mRNA uses the most proximal PAS and is increased in the cytoplasm. Finally, we have demonstrated that in ALS motor neurons-especially neurons with mislocalized TDP-43-the amount of TARDBP mRNA is increased in the cytoplasm. Our observations indicate that nuclear TDP-43 contributes to the autoregulation and suggests that the absence of nuclear TDP-43 induces an abnormal autoregulation and increases the amount of TARDBP mRNA. The vicious cycle might accelerate the disease progression of ALS. © 2016 The Author(s). Source

Kubota M.,Center for Transdisciplinary Research | Saito Y.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Masumura T.,Kyoto Prefectural University | Watanabe R.,Niigata University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology

Rice has storage proteins, e.g., glutelin, globulin and prolamin, in the seeds, which are used as nitrogen sources during germination. Rice prolamin has been reported to be an indigestible protein that decreases the nutritional value of rice. However, the causes for the indigestibility of prolamin are currently not clear. The objective of this study was to determine if prolamin is naturally indigestible or if cooking affects its digestibility. The gastrointestinal (GI) transit of rice 23 kDa glutelin (23G) and 13 kDa prolamin (13P) in Wistar/ST rats fed raw rice (RR) and cooked rice (CR) diets was assessed using Western blot analysis. We also measured the excretion of these proteins in the feces of these rats. Additionally, morphological observation of the structure of type-I protein bodies in the feces was performed using electron microscopy. Assessment of GI transit revealed that 23G rapidly disappeared from the GI contents of both the RR and CR groups, but 13P accumulated in the cecum of the CR group. In the CR group, prolamin, maintaining the structure of PB-I, was fully excreted in the feces. These results indicate that rice prolamin is not indigestible by nature, but is rendered indigestible by cooking. © 2014, Center for Academic Publications Japan. All rights reserved. Source

Egawa J.,Niigata University | Egawa J.,Center for Transdisciplinary Research | Watanabe Y.,Niigata University | Watanabe Y.,Comprehensive Medical Education Center | And 7 more authors.
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

Aims The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) is implicated in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A recent study found a rare non-synonymous OXTR gene variation, rs35062132 (R376G), associated with ASD in a Japanese population. In order to investigate the association between rare non-synonymous OXTR variations and ASD, we resequenced OXTR and performed association analysis with ASD in a Japanese population. Methods We resequenced the OXTR coding region in 213 ASD patients. Rare non-synonymous OXTR variations detected by resequencing were genotyped in 213 patients and 667 controls. Results We detected three rare non-synonymous variations: rs35062132 (R376G/C), rs151257822 (G334D), and g.8809426G>T (R150S). However, there was no significant association between these rare non-synonymous variations and ASD. Conclusions Our present study does not support the contribution of rare non-synonymous OXTR variations to ASD susceptibility in the Japanese population. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology. Source

Jia H.,Niigata University | Jia H.,Qiqihar University | Teraguchi M.,Niigata University | Teraguchi M.,Center for Education and Research on Environmental Technology | And 13 more authors.

Three novel chiral phenylacetylenes having an octyloxyethanolamine residue derived from a l-aminoalcohol and two hydroxymethyl groups were synthesized and polymerized by two achiral catalysts ((nbd) Rh+[Ε6-(C6H5)B -(C6H5)3] and [Rh(nbd)Cl] 2/triethylamine (TEA)) and a chiral catalytic system ([Rh(nbd)Cl]2/(S)- or (R)-phenylethylamine ((S)- or (R)-PEA)). All of the resulting polymers showed Cotton effects at wavelengths around 430 nm. This observation indicated that they had an excess of one-handed helical backbones. Positive and negative Cotton effects were observed for the polymers having an l-valinol residue produced by using (S)- and (R)-PEA as a cocatalyst, respectively, although the monomers had the same chirality. The two polymers having an l-alaninol or l-phenylalaninol residues obtained by using (S)- and (R)-PEA as a cocatalyst showed CD absorptions with identical signs. Therefore, we found that the chiral monomer having an l-valinol residue was suitable for both modes of asymmetric polymerization, that is, helix-sense-selective polymerization (HSSP) with the chiral catalytic system and asymmetric-induced polymerization (AIP) with the achiral catalysts. However, the other two monomers having an l-alaninol or l-phenylalaninol residue were not suitable for HSSP because the helix sense could not be controlled by the chirality of PEA. To explain the unexpected behaviors in the asymmetric polymerizations of the two chiral monomers having a chiral bidentate ligand, a novel third mechanism of asymmetric polymerization, that is, self-helix-sense-selective polymerization (SHSSP), is proposed in this Article. This Article discusses the contribution of the three mechanisms (AIP, HSSP, and SHSSP) in asymmetric polymerizations of the three monomers. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Baba A.,Center for Transdisciplinary Research | Aoki N.,Niigata University | Shinbo K.,Center for Transdisciplinary Research | Shinbo K.,Niigata University | And 4 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces

In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance (SPR) enhanced organic thin-film photovoltaic cells and their improved photocurrent properties. The cell consists of a grating substrate/ silver/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS structure. Blu-ray disk recordable substrates are used as the diffraction grating substrates on which silver films are deposited by vacuum evaporation. P3HT:PCBM films are spin-coated on silver/grating substrates. Low conductivity PEDOT:PSS/PDADMAC layer-by-layer ultrathin films deposited on P3HT:PCBM films act as the hole transport layer, whereas high conductivity PEDOT:PSS films deposited by spin-coating act as the anode. SPR excitations are observed in the fabricated cells upon irradiation with white light. Up to a 2-fold increase in the short-circuit photocurrent is observed when the surface plasmon (SP) is excited on the silver gratings as compared to that without SP excitation. The finite-difference time-domain simulation indicates that the electric field in the P3HT: PCBM layer can be increased using the grating-coupled SP technique. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

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