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Hamzah M.O.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Abdullah N.H.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Voskuilen J.L.M.,Center for Traffic and Navigation | van Bochove G.,Heijmans
Road Materials and Pavement Design | Year: 2013

The permeability of porous asphalt (PA) reduces after a few years in service due to clogging. The two-layer porous asphal (TLPA) was developed to mitigate this problem. This paper presents a laboratory-simulative clogging test of single-layer and TLPA using a falling-head water permeameter. The resistance to clogging of the PA specimens was evaluated by subjecting specimens to five clogging and cleansing cycles. All clogging tests were carried out at an ambient temperature. To evaluate the effects of temperature on clogging resistance, the clogging test procedure was also conducted on selected specimens but conditioned at 10°C, 30°C and 50°C. The test results showed that a significant permeability loss took place during the first few clogging and cleansing cycles, beyond which it asymptotes. The TLPA specimens can better resist clogging compared with the single-layer PA specimens. Binder content significantly affects clogging behaviour, while specimens conditioned at higher temperature were more susceptible to clogging compared with specimens conditioned at lower temperatures. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Mohd Hasan M.R.,Michigan Technological University | Eng J.Y.,MMC Gamuda KVMRT T Sdn Bhd | Hamzah M.O.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Voskuilen J.L.M.,Center for Traffic and Navigation
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

Porous Asphalt (PA) is typically used to mitigate traffic noise, reduce splash and spray behind vehicles and improve wet-weather skid resistance at high speeds. However, its widespread application is hampered by short service life due to raveling and clogging. Improvement in service life may be possible with improved aggregate gradation since the aggregate matrix provides the main load bearing skeleton of the mix. This paper evaluates the effects of break point (BP) locations and nominal maximum aggregate sizes (NMAS) on PA properties. Several gradations were proposed based on the Dutch PA gradation PAC 0/16 limits but varying the NMAS and BP. The Dutch PA gradation was referred to in view of its durability with service life up to 16 years on the fast lane. Specimens are prepared using a conventional binder penetration grade 60/70 and subjected to permeability, resilient modulus, abrasion loss and indirect tensile strength tests. The results indicated that permeability and resilient modulus improved when larger NMAS and BP were used. For instance, the resilient modulus of mix with NMAS 25 mm is 24.2% higher than the mix using NMAS 14 mm. However, the tensile strength and resistance to abrasion loss of PA decrease when the NMAS and BP increase. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Liu X.,Technical University of Delft | Scarpas T.,Technical University of Delft | Li J.,Technical University of Delft | Tzimiris G.,Technical University of Delft | And 2 more authors.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2013

For the adequate characterization of the adhesive-bonding strength of various membranes and surrounding materials on orthotropic steel decks and for the collection of the necessary parameters for finite element modeling, details of the membrane adhesion test (MAT) are introduced. Analytical constitutive relations of the MAT device have been derived from the same methodology used by Williams (1997). Furthermore, through the use of the experimental data obtained from the MAT, the ranking of the bonding characteristics of various membrane products is demonstrated, as is the role of other influencing factors, such as test temperatures and types of substrate.

Li J.,Technical University of Delft | Liu X.,Technical University of Delft | Scarpas A.,Technical University of Delft | Tzimiris G.,Technical University of Delft | And 3 more authors.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2013

The French five-point bending (5PB) test provides a laboratory-scale test that allows studying the fatigue resistance of surfacing systems on orthotropic steel deck (OSD) bridges. The surfacing structure for OSD bridges in the Netherlands is mostly a multilayer system: top porous asphalt (PA) layer, guss asphalt (GA) layer, steel deck, and two membrane layers. In this paper, an analytical solution for the 5PB test setup is presented first. To understand better the influence of geometrical, mechanical, and structural parameters on the performance of the typical multilayer surfacing system of OSD bridges in the Netherlands, the 5PB test specimens with five structural layers have been investigated. The parametric study was performed at the numerical platform CAPA-3D, which was developed at the Section of Structural Mechanics of the Delft University of Technology. The thicknesses of the top PA layer, middle GA layer, and the steel plate were varied. The influences of the mechanical properties of both top and bottom membrane layers were studied. The sensitivities of those influence factors were evaluated by examination of the maximum tensile stress at the top surface of the PA layers and the strain distributions through the entire thickness of the specimen at two cross sections.

Bakker J.D.,Center for Infrastructure | Helmer J.,Center for Infrastructure | Schavemaker J.,Center for Traffic and Navigation
Life-Cycle and Sustainability of Civil Infrastructure Systems - Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering, IALCCE 2012 | Year: 2012

Life cycle costing (LCC) is a methodology for assessing the total cost performance of an asset over time. Life Cycle Cost Management (LCCM) relates to the management of cost effects embedded in processes and decision procedures within an organisation over the life cycle. This paper summarises opportunities for the use of LCCM in construction processes and describes how these are currently implemented at the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment (Rijkswaterstaat). By implementing LCCM Rijkswaterstaat strives for delivering a desired performance at minimum cost over the entire life cycle. Traditionally design processes are focussed on creating new infrastructure at the lowest cost of construction. However, the cost of mobility are determined by both founding cost and operating cost. A focus on the founding cost only leads to ineffective investments in mobility. LCCM can provide a solution to achieve better value for money.

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