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Saino E.,Medicine Section | Saino E.,Center For Tissue Engineering Cit | Grandi S.,Center For Tissue Engineering Cit | Quartarone E.,Center For Tissue Engineering Cit | And 10 more authors.
European Cells and Materials | Year: 2011

Bioactive glasses synthesized by the sol-gel technique possess many of the qualities associated with an ideal scaffold material for a bone graft substitute. In view of the potential clinical applications, we performed a detailed in vitro study of the biological reactivity of synthesized 58S bioactive glass containing-zinc, in terms of osteoblast morphology, proliferation, and deposition of a mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM). Human Sarcoma Osteoblast (SAOS-2) cells were used to i) assess cytotoxicity by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and ii) evaluate the deposition of a calcified extracellular matrix by ELISA assay and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). In comparison with pure silica and 58S, the 58S-Zn0.4 bioglass showed a significant increase in cellular proliferation and deposition of ECM components such as decorin, fibronectin, osteocalcin, osteonectin, osteopontin, type-I and -IIIcollagens. Calcium deposition was significantly higher than on pure silica and 58S samples. Also Alkaline phosphatase(ALP) activity and its protein content was higher with respect to pure silica and 58S. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the up-regulation of type-I collagen, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin genes. All together these results demonstratethe cytocompatibility of 58S-Zn0.4 bioglass and its capability to promote osteoblast differentiation. Source


Saino E.,University of Pavia | Saino E.,Center For Tissue Engineering Cit | Focarete M.L.,University of Bologna | Gualandi C.,University of Bologna | And 4 more authors.
Biomacromolecules | Year: 2011

Macrophage activation can be modulated by biomaterial topography according to the biological scale (micrometric and nanometric range). In this study, we investigated the effect of fiber diameter and fiber alignment of electrospun poly(l-lactic) (PLLA) scaffolds on macrophage RAW 264.7 activation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines at 24 h and 7 days. Macrophages were cultured on four different types of fibrous PLLA scaffold (aligned microfibers, aligned nanofibers, random microfibers, and random nanofibers) and on PLLA film (used as a reference). Substrate topography was found to influence the immune response activated by macrophages, especially in the early inflammation stage. Secretion of proinflammatory molecules by macrophage cells was chiefly dependent on fiber diameter. In particular, nanofibrous PLLA scaffolds minimized the inflammatory response when compared with films and microfibrous scaffolds. The histological evaluation demonstrated a higher number of foreign body giant cells on the PLLA film than on the micro- and nanofibrous scaffolds. In summary, our results indicate that the diameter of electrospun PLLA fibers, rather than fiber alignment, plays a relevant role in influencing in vitro macrophage activation and secretion of proinflammatory molecules. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source


Bloise N.,University of Pavia | Bloise N.,Center For Tissue Engineering Cit | Saino E.,University of Pavia | Saino E.,Center For Tissue Engineering Cit | And 7 more authors.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro effect of a single or a multiple doses of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on proliferation of the human osteosarcoma cell line, SAOS-2. SAOS-2 cells were divided in five groups and exposed to LLLI (659 nm diode laser; 11 mW power output): group I as a control (dark), group II exposed to a single laser dose of 1 J/cm2, group III irradiated with a single dose of 3 J/cm2, and group IV and V exposed for three consecutive days to 1 or 3 J/cm2, respectively. Cellular proliferation was assessed daily up to 7 days of culturing. The obtained results showed an increase in proliferative capacity of SAOS-2 cells during the first 96 h of culturing time in once-irradiated cells, as compared to control cells. Furthermore, a significantly higher proliferation in the group IV and V was detected if compared to a single dose or to control group after 96 h and 7 days. In conclusion, the effect of the single dose on cell proliferation was transitory and repeated irradiations were necessary to observe a strong enhancement of SAOS-2 growth. As a future perspective, we would like to determine the potential of LLLI as a new approach for promoting bone regeneration onto biomaterials. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Source


Fortunati E.,University of Perugia | Armentano I.,University of Perugia | Zhou Q.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Iannoni A.,University of Perugia | And 8 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

Nanocomposite films were prepared by the addition of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) eventually surfactant modified (s-CNC) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles in the polylactic acid (PLA) matrix using melt extrusion followed by a film formation process. Multifunctional composite materials were investigated in terms of morphological, mechanical, thermal and antibacterial response. The nanocomposite films maintained the transparency properties of the PLA matrix. Thermal analysis showed increased values of crystallinity in the nanocomposites, more evident in the s-CNC based formulations that had the highest tensile Young modulus. The presence of surfactant favoured the dispersion of cellulose nanocrystals in the polymer matrix and the nucleation effect was remarkably enhanced. Moreover, an antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli cells was detected for ternary systems, suggesting that these novel nanocomposites may offer good perspectives for food packaging applications which require an antibacterial effect constant over time. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Grandi S.,University of Pavia | Cassinelli V.,University of Pavia | Bini M.,University of Pavia | Saino E.,University of Pavia | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Artificial Organs | Year: 2011

Bioglasses are of wide interest since they spontaneously bond and integrate with living bone in the body. By varying the glass chemistry and/or by adding some dopants, it is possible to improve their clinical applications. Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are a well-known antibacterial agent, as well as a unique probe for sensing and imaging applications. We report on the synthesis of a 58S bioglass doped with Au NPs at two doping levels: 0.1% wt. and 1% wt. Antibacterial properties were observed on the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, whereas no significant effects were found on the Gram-negative Escherichia coli. A possible mechanism of action of Au NPs towards bacteria has been described. © 2011 Wichtig Editore. Source

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