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Ilsan, South Korea

Cho B.Y.,Seoul National University | Choi H.S.,Seoul National University | Park Y.J.,Seoul National University | Lim J.A.,Seoul National University | And 9 more authors.
Thyroid | Year: 2013

Background: Thyroid cancer has increased globally, with a prominent increase in small, papillary thyroid cancers (PTC). The Korean population has a high iodine intake, high prevalence of BRAF V600E mutations, and family histories of thyroid cancer. We examined the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of thyroid cancers in Korean patients over four decades. Methods: The medical records of 4500 thyroid cancer patients, between 1962 and 2009 at a single center, including 3147 PTC patients, were reviewed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 46.8±13.2 years; women accounted for 82.9% of the patients, and the median follow-up duration was 4.8 years (mean 7.0±5.8 years, range 1-43 years). The number of patients visiting the clinic increased from 411 during 1962-1990 to 2900 during 2000-2009. Age at diagnosis increased from 39.6±12.9 to 48.6±12.4 years. The male to female ratio increased from 1:6 to 1:4.5. The proportion of small (<1 cm) tumors increased from 6.1% to 43.1%, and the proportion of cancers with lymph node (LN) involvement or extrathyroidal extension (ETE) decreased from 76.4% to 44.4% and from 65.5% to 54.8% respectively. Although there were decreases in the proportion of LN involvement and ETE, these decreasing rates were not proportional to the expected rates based on the decreased proportion of large tumors. The overall recurrence and mortality rates were 13.3% and 1.4%. The five-year recurrence rate significantly decreased (from 11% to 5.9%), and the five-year mortality also improved (from 1.5% to 0.2%). Conclusions: The incidence of thyroid cancer has rapidly increased, with a decrease in tumors of large size, LN involvement, and ETE, although the decreasing rates of LN involvement and ETE were not as prominent as decreasing rates of large size tumors. The mortality and recurrence rates have also decreased. Future long-term follow-up of patients diagnosed in the most recent decade is needed to confirm the prognostic characteristics of Korean PTC patients. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Shin D.W.,Seoul National University | Cho J.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kim S.Y.,National Cancer Control Research Institute | Guallar E.,Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions | And 7 more authors.
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: Surgery for cancer is often delayed due to variety of patient-, provider-, and health system-related factors. However, impact of delayed surgery is not clear, and may vary among cancer types. We aimed to determine the impact of the delay from cancer diagnosis to potentially curative surgery on survival. Methods: Cohort study based on representative sample of patients (n = 7,529) with colorectal, breast, lung and thyroid cancer with local or regional disease who underwent potentially curative surgery as their first therapeutic modality within 1 year of cancer diagnosis. They were diagnosed in 2006 and followed for mortality until April 2011, a median follow-up of 4.7 years. Results: For colorectal and breast cancers, the adjusted hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) for all-cause mortality comparing a surgical delay beyond 12 weeks to performing surgery within weeks 1-4 after diagnosis were 2.65 (1.50-4.70) and 1.91 (1.06-3.49), respectively. No clear pattern of increased risk was observed with delays between 4 and 12 weeks, or for any delay in lung and thyroid cancers. Concordance between the area of the patient's residence and the hospital performing surgery, and the patient's income status were associated with delayed surgery. Conclusions: Delays to curative surgery beyond 12 weeks were associated with increased mortality in colorectal and breast cancers, suggesting that health provision services should be organized to avoid unnecessary treatment delays. Health care systems should also aim to reduce socioeconomic and geographic disparities and to guarantee equitable access to high quality cancer care. © 2013 Society of Surgical Oncology. Source


Cho Y.Y.,Sungkyunkwan University | Lim J.,National Cancer Center | Oh C.-M.,National Cancer Center | Ryu J.,Center for Thyroid Cancer | And 4 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer affects relatively young adults, and its overall survival is excellent. With long life expectancy, the development of subsequent cancers is an important concern for survivors of thyroid cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and types of second primary malignancies in Korean patients with thyroid cancer. METHODS: The study cohort included 178,844 registrants with thyroid cancer from the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database between 1993 and 2010. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated using a statistical software program (SEER∗Stat 8.0.4). RESULTS: Among 178,844 patients with thyroid cancer, 2895 (1.6%) were diagnosed with subsequent second primary malignancies. The overall risks of a second primary cancer were elevated by 6% in patients who had thyroid cancer compared with the general population during the same period. The elevated risks for developing second cancers were observed in all sites except the stomach and cervix. The elevated risk of second primary cancers was observed within the first 10 years of follow-up. Leukemia and cancers of the salivary gland, kidney, prostate, lung, and breast had the most significantly elevated risks as secondary cancers and presented as early as during the first 5 years after the initial diagnosis of thyroid cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest, standardized, population-based study to date using nationwide data from the entire Korean population. The risks of several cancers were elevated significantly during follow-up, thus alerting physicians to pay special attention in their care of patients with thyroid cancer and long-term survivors. © 2014 American Cancer Society. Source


Shin D.W.,Seoul National University | Baik Y.J.,National Cancer Control Institute | Kim Y.W.,Center for Gastric Cancer | Oh J.H.,Center for Colorectal Cancer | And 5 more authors.
Patient Education and Counseling | Year: 2011

Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the knowledge, attitude, and practice on second cancer screening among cancer survivors. Methods: Three focus group interviews were conducted with thirteen disease-free stomach, colorectal, breast and thyroid cancer survivors. Recurrent issues were identified and then placed into thematic categories. Results: None of the study participants had heard SPC, and they could not differentiate SPC from 'recurrence' or 'metastasis.' Survivors believed that they had been cured, and they were not aware of their increased risk of SPC. Although they had high awareness of cancer screening, they could not make a distinction between 'cancer screening' and 'routine surveillance test' after cancer treatment. Survivors said that they would have had the screening for SPC if they had known about it. They preferred physicians as the most reliable source for screening information. Conclusion: Cancer survivors had limited knowledge about SPC, and lack of information was the main barrier for SPC screening. Practice implications: An educational intervention would help cancer survivors to understand their risk of SPC and the needs of screening after the first cancer. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Kim S.-J.,Seoul National University | Park S.Y.,Center for Thyroid Cancer | Lee Y.J.,Center for Thyroid Cancer | Lee E.K.,Center for Thyroid Cancer | And 7 more authors.
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: Lateral lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor and is predictive of tumor recurrence and cause-specific survival in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). However, the factors predicting recurrence and clinical outcomes after therapeutic lateral neck dissection are not well established. The aims of this study were to evaluate the incidence, pattern, and factors predictive of PTC recurrence after therapeutic lateral neck dissection. Materials and Methods: The records of 126 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with therapeutic lateral neck dissection for primary PTC at the National Cancer Center were retrospectively reviewed. The factors predictive of recurrence were determined using both univariate and multivariate analyses considering several clinicopathologic variables. Results: The median follow-up period was 61.2 months, during which 22 patients (17.5 %) experienced recurrence with 1 death (0.8 %) due to disease. Locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis were found in 20 cases (15.9 %) and 2 cases (1.6 %), respectively. Male gender, aggressive histology, number of lymph node metastases, initial level of T4-off Tg per ng/mL, and ATA risk categories (high risk) were independent risk factors for recurrence. Of note, initial T4-off Tg levels greater than 4.2 ng/mL showed highest sensitivity and specificity in predicting recurrence. Conclusions: These results provide useful information regarding the clinical outcomes after therapeutic lateral neck dissection for primary PTC and can be used to identify at-risk patients who need aggressive treatment and intensive surveillance for postoperative recurrence. © 2014 Society of Surgical Oncology. Source

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