Allenstown Elementary School, NH, United States
Allenstown Elementary School, NH, United States

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PubMed | Johns Hopkins University, Center for the Study of Viable Systems and Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology | Year: 2015

Levels of the HER2/ErbB2 protein in the heart are upregulated in some women during breast cancer therapy, and these women are at high risk for developing heart dysfunction after sequential treatment with anti-ErbB2/trastuzumab or doxorubicin. Doxorubicin is known to increase oxidative stress in the heart, and thus we considered the possibility that ErbB2 protein influences the status of cardiac antioxidant defenses in cardiomyocytes. In this study, we measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiac mitochondria and whole hearts from mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of ErbB2 (ErbB2(tg)) and found that, compared with control mice, high levels of ErbB2 in myocardium result in lower levels of ROS in mitochondria (P = 0.0075) and whole hearts (P = 0.0381). Neonatal cardiomyocytes isolated from ErbB2(tg) hearts have lower ROS levels and less cellular death (P < 0.0001) following doxorubicin treatment. Analyzing antioxidant enzyme levels and activities, we found that ErbB2(tg) hearts have increased levels of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) protein (P < 0.0001) and GPx activity (P = 0.0031) in addition to increased levels of two known GPx activators, c-Abl (P = 0.0284) and Arg (P < 0.0001). Interestingly, although mitochondrial ROS emission is reduced in the ErbB2(tg) hearts, oxygen consumption rates and complex I activity are similar to control littermates. Compared with these in vivo studies, H9c2 cells transfected with ErbB2 showed less cellular toxicity and produced less ROS (P < 0.0001) after doxorubicin treatment but upregulated GR activity (P = 0.0237) instead of GPx. Our study shows that ErbB2-dependent signaling contributes to antioxidant defenses and suggests a novel mechanism by which anticancer therapies involving ErbB2 antagonists can harm myocardial structure and function.

PubMed | Medical Radiological Research Center Named By yb and Center for the Study of Viable Systems
Type: | Journal: Radiation measurements | Year: 2015

Absorbed doses to fingernails and organs were calculated for a set of homogenous external gamma-ray irradiation geometries in air. The doses were obtained by stochastic modeling of the ionizing particle transport (Monte Carlo method) for a mathematical human phantom with arms and hands placed loosely along the sides of the body. The resulting dose conversion factors for absorbed doses in fingernails can be used to assess the dose distribution and magnitude in practical dose reconstruction problems. For purposes of estimating dose in a large population exposed to radiation in order to triage people for treatment of acute radiation syndrome, the calculated data for a range of energies having a width of from 0.05 to 3.5 MeV were used to convert absorbed doses in fingernails to corresponding doses in organs and the whole body as well as the effective dose. Doses were assessed based on assumed rates of radioactive fallout at different time periods following a nuclear explosion.

Franzen S.,Linköping University | Pihl L.,Linköping University | Khan N.,Center for the Study of Viable Systems | Gustafsson H.,Linköping University | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2016

Intrarenal tissue hypoxia has been proposed as a unifying mechanism for the development of chronic kidney disease, including diabetic nephropathy. However, hypoxia has to be present before the onset of kidney disease to be the causal mechanism. To establish whether hypoxia precedes the onset of diabetic nephropathy, we implemented a minimally invasive electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry technique using implanted oxygen sensing probes for repetitive measurements of in vivo kidney tissue oxygen tensions in mice. Kidney cortex oxygen tensions were measured before and up to 15 days after the induction of insulinopenic diabetes in male mice and compared with normoglycemic controls. On day 16, urinary albumin excretions and conscious glomerular filtration rates were determined to define the temporal relationship between intrarenal hypoxia and disease development. Diabetic mice developed pronounced intrarenal hypoxia 3 days after the induction of diabetes, which persisted throughout the study period. On day 16, diabetic mice had glomerular hyperfiltration, but normal urinary albumin excretion. In conclusion, intrarenal tissue hypoxia in diabetes precedes albuminuria thereby being a plausible cause for the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

Swartz H.M.,Center for the Study of Viable Systems | Hou H.,Dartmouth College | Khan N.,Dartmouth College | Jarvis L.A.,Dartmouth College | And 3 more authors.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2014

EPR oximetry, which enables reliable, accurate, and repeated measurements of the partial pressure of oxygen in tissues, provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of oxygen in the pathogenesis and treatment of several diseases including cancer, stroke, and heart failure. Building on signifi cant advances in the in vivo application of EPR oximetry for small animal models of disease, we are developing suitable probes and instrumentation required for use in human subjects. Our laboratory has established the feasibility of clinical EPR oximetry in cancer patients using India ink, the only material presently approved for clinical use. We now are developing the next generation of probes, which are both superior in terms of oxygen sensitivity and biocompatibility including an excellent safety profi le for use in humans. Further advances include the development of implantable oxygen sensors linked to an external coupling loop for measurements of deep-tissue oxygenations at any depth, overcoming the current limitation of 10 mm. This paper presents an overview of recent developments in our ability to make meaningful measurements of oxygen partial pressures in human subjects under clinical settings. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014.

PubMed | Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, Center for the Study of Viable Systems and Nicolalde R&D LLC
Type: | Journal: Radiation protection dosimetry | Year: 2016

Testing and verification are an integral part of any cycle to design, manufacture and improve a novel device intended for use in humans. In the case of testing Dartmouths electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in vivo tooth dosimetry device, in vitro studies are needed throughout its development to test its performance, i.e. to verify its current capability for assessing dose in individuals potentially exposed to ionizing radiation. Since the EPR device uses the enamel of human teeth to assess dose, models that include human teeth have been an integral mechanism to carry out in vitro studies during development and testing its ability to meet performance standards for its ultimate intended in vivo use. As the instrument improves over time, new demands for in vitro studies change as well. This paper describes the tooth models used to perform in vitro studies and their evolution to meet the changing demands for testing in vivo EPR tooth dosimetry.

Swartz H.M.,Center for the Study of Viable Systems | Williams B.B.,Center for the Study of Viable Systems | Flood A.B.,Center for the Study of Viable Systems
Radiation and Environmental Biophysics | Year: 2014

The principle of biodosimetry is to utilize changes induced in the individual by ionizing radiation to estimate the dose and, if possible, to predict or reflect the clinically relevant response, i.e., the biological consequences of the dose. Ideally, the changes should be specific for ionizing radiation, and the response should be unaffected by prior medical or physiological variations among subjects, including changes that might be caused by the stress and trauma from a radiation event. There are two basic types of biodosimetry with different and often complementary characteristics: those based on changes in biological parameters such as gene activation or chromosomal abnormalities and those based on physical changes in tissues (detected by techniques such as EPR). In this paper, we consider the applicability of the various techniques for different scenarios: small-And large-scale exposures to levels of radiation that could lead to the acute radiation syndrome and exposures with lower doses that do not need immediate care, but should be followed for evidence of long-term consequences. The development of biodosimetry has been especially stimulated by the needs after a large-scale event where it is essential to have a means to identify those individuals who would benefit from being brought into the medical care system. Analyses of the conventional methods officially recommended for responding to such events indicate that these methods are unlikely to achieve the results needed for timely triage of thousands of victims. Emerging biodosimetric methods can fill this critically important gap. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

Flood A.B.,Center for the Study of Viable Systems | Satinsky V.A.,Center for the Study of Viable Systems | Swartz H.M.,Center for the Study of Viable Systems
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2016

Given the clinical evidence that hypoxic tumors are more resistant to standard therapy and that adjusting therapies can improve the outcomes for the subpopulation with hypoxic tumors, in vivo methods to measure oxygen in tissue have important clinical potential. This paper provides the rationale for and methodological strategies to use comparative effectiveness research to evaluate oximetry for cancer care. Nine oximetry methods that have been used in vivo to measure oxygen in human tumors are evaluated on several clinically relevant criteria to illustrate the value of applying comparative effectiveness to oximetry. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

PubMed | Center for the Study of Viable Systems
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Radiation protection dosimetry | Year: 2016

Managing radiation injuries following a catastrophic event where large numbers of people may have been exposed to life-threatening doses of ionizing radiation relies on the availability of biodosimetry to assess whether individuals need to be triaged for care. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) tooth dosimetry is a viable method to accurately estimate the amount of ionizing radiation to which an individual has been exposed. In the intended measurement conditions and scenario, it is essential that the measurement process be fast, straightforward and provides meaningful and accurate dose estimations for individuals in the expected measurement conditions. The sensing component of a conventional L-band EPR spectrometer used for tooth dosimetry typically consists of a surface coil resonator that is rigidly, physically attached to the coupler. This design can result in cumbersome operation, limitations in teeth geometries that may be measured and hinder the overall utility of the dosimeter. A novel surface coil resonator has been developed for the currently existing L-band (1.15 GHz) EPR tooth dosimeter for the intended use as a point of care device by minimally trained operators. This resonator development provides further utility to the dosimeter, and increases the usability of the dosimeter by non-expert operators in the intended use scenario.

PubMed | Center for the Study of Viable Systems
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Radiation protection dosimetry | Year: 2016

A new resonator for X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, which utilizes the unique resonance properties of dielectric substrates, has been developed using a single crystal of titanium dioxide. As a result of the dielectric properties of the crystal(s) chosen, this novel resonator provides the ability to make in vivo EPR spectroscopy surface measurements in the presence of lossy tissues at X-band frequencies (up to 10 GHz). A double-loop coupling device is used to transmit and receive microwave power to/from the resonator. This coupler has been developed and optimized for coupling to the resonator in the presence of lossy tissues to further enable in vivo measurements, such as in vivo EPR spectroscopy of human fingernails or teeth to measure the dose of ionizing radiation that a given individual has been exposed to. An advantage of this resonator for surface measurements is that the magnetic fields generated by the resonator are inherently shallow, which is desirable for in vivo nail dosimetry.

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