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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Olbrich P.,Institute Biomedicina Of Seville | Martinez-Saavedra M.T.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Perez-Hurtado J.M.,Pediatric Hematology Unit | Sanchez C.,Institute Biomedicina Of Seville | And 16 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2015

Autosomal recessive (AR) complete Interferon-γ Receptor1 (IFN-γR1) deficiency is a rare variant of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). Although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only curative treatment, outcomes are heterogeneous; delayed engraftment and/or graft rejection being commonly observed. This case report and literature review expands the knowledge about this rare but potentially fatal pathology, providing details regarding diagnosis, antimicrobial treatment, transplant performance, and outcome that may help to guide physicians caring for patients with AR complete IFN-γR1 or IFN-γR2 deficiency. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Poyhonen L.,University of Tampere | Poyhonen L.,Center for the Study of Primary Immunodeficiencies | Kroger L.,Kuopio University Hospital | Huhtala H.,University of Tampere | And 13 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2016

Background: Inborn errors of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-mediated immunity underlie disseminated disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) live vaccines. We hypothesized that some patients with osteitis after BCG vaccination may have an impaired IFN-γ immunity. Our aim was to investigate interleukin (IL)-12 and IFN-γ ex vivo production stimulated with BCG and BCG + IFN-γ or BCG + IL-12, respectively, in BCG osteitis survivors. Methods: Fresh blood samples were collected from 132 former BCG osteitis Finnish patients now aged 21-49 years, and IL-12 and IFN-γ were measured in cell cultures with and without stimulation with BCG and with BCG + IFN-γ or BCG + IL-12, respectively. As a pilot study, known disease-causing genes controlling IFN-γ immunity (IFNGR1, IFNGR2, STAT1, IL12B, IL12RB1, ISG15, IRF8, NEMO and CYBB) were investigated in 20 selected patients by whole exome sequencing. Results: By the limit of <5th percentile, ex vivo IL-12 concentration and increase in concentration was low in 5 and ex vivo IFN-γ concentration and increase in concentration was low in 6 patients (including 2 samples with both IL-12 and IFN-γ findings). By the limit of <10th percentile, an additional 6 and 4 patients were, respectively, detected (including 2 samples with both findings). With 2 exceptions, low concentrations and low increases in concentrations picked-up the same cases. Mutations in known disease-causing IFN-γ-related genes were not found in any of these patients. Conclusion: These findings call for searching of mutations in new genes governing IFN-γ-dependent immunity to live BCG vaccine. copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Bustamante J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bustamante J.,University of Paris Descartes | Bustamante J.,Center for the Study of Primary Immunodeficiencies | Boisson-Dupuis S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 10 more authors.
Seminars in Immunology | Year: 2014

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare condition characterized by predisposition to clinical disease caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria, in otherwise healthy individuals with no overt abnormalities in routine hematological and immunological tests. MSMD designation does not recapitulate all the clinical features, as patients are also prone to salmonellosis, candidiasis and tuberculosis, and more rarely to infections with other intramacrophagic bacteria, fungi, or parasites, and even, perhaps, a few viruses. Since 1996, nine MSMD-causing genes, including seven autosomal (IFNGR1, IFNGR2, STAT1, IL12B, IL12RB1, ISG15, and IRF8) and two X-linked (NEMO, and CYBB) genes have been discovered. The high level of allelic heterogeneity has already led to the definition of 18 different disorders. The nine gene products are physiologically related, as all are involved in IFN-γ-dependent immunity. These disorders impair the production of (IL12B, IL12RB1, IRF8, ISG15, NEMO) or the response to (IFNGR1, IFNGR2, STAT1, IRF8, CYBB) IFN-γ. These defects account for only about half the known MSMD cases. Patients with MSMD-causing genetic defects may display other infectious diseases, or even remain asymptomatic. Most of these inborn errors do not show complete clinical penetrance for the case-definition phenotype of MSMD. We review here the genetic, immunological, and clinical features of patients with inborn errors of IFN-γ-dependent immunity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Boisson-Dupuis S.,Rockefeller University | Boisson-Dupuis S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Boisson-Dupuis S.,University of Paris Descartes | Bustamante J.,Rockefeller University | And 50 more authors.
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2015

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and a few related mycobacteria, is a devastating disease, killing more than a million individuals per year worldwide. However, its pathogenesis remains largely elusive, as only a small proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease either during primary infection or during reactivation from latency or secondary infection. Subacute, hematogenous, and extrapulmonary disease tends to be more frequent in infants, children, and teenagers than in adults. Life-threatening primary TB of childhood can result from known acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies, although the vast majority of cases remain unexplained. We review here the conditions conferring a predisposition to childhood clinical diseases caused by mycobacteria, including not only M.tb but also weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria are much rarer than TB, but the inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying these infections are much better known. Their study has also provided genetic and immunological insights into childhood TB, as illustrated by the discovery of single-gene inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlying severe cases of TB. Novel findings are expected from ongoing and future human genetic studies of childhood TB in countries that combine a high proportion of consanguineous marriages, a high incidence of TB, and an excellent clinical care, such as Iran, Morocco, and Turkey. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Hubeau M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Hubeau M.,University of Paris Descartes | Ngadjeua F.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Puel A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 32 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

Nuclear factor-κB essential modulator (NEMO), the regulatory subunit of the IκB kinase complex, is a critical component of the NF-κB pathway. Hypomorphic mutations in the X-linked human NEMO gene cause various forms of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID). All known X-linked EDAID- causing mutations impair NEMO protein expression, folding, or both. We describe here 2 EDA-ID - causing missense mutations that affect the same residue in the CC2-LZ domain (D311N and D311G) that do not impair NEMO production or folding. Structural studies based on pulldown experiments showed a defect in noncovalent interaction with K63-linked and linear polyubiquitin chains for these mutant proteins. Functional studies on the patients' cells showed an impairment of the classic NF-κB signaling pathways after activation of 2 NEMO ubiquitin-binding - dependent receptors, the TNF and IL-1β receptors, and in the CD40-dependent NF-κB pathway. We report the first human NEMO mutations responsible for X-linked EDA-ID found to affect the polyubiquitin binding of NEMO rather than its expression and folding. These experiments demonstrate that the binding of human NEMO to polyubiquitin is essential for NF-κB activation. They also demonstrate that the normal expression and folding of NEMO do not exclude a pathogenic role for NEMO mutations in patients with EDA-ID. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology.

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