Connolly N.M.C.,Center for Systems Medicine |
Connolly N.M.C.,Center for the Study of Neurological Disorders |
D'Orsi B.,Center for the Study of Neurological Disorders |
Monsefi N.,Center for Systems Medicine |
And 3 more authors.
Loss of ionic homeostasis during excitotoxic stress depletes ATP levels and activates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), re-establishing energy production by increased expression of glucose transporters on the plasma membrane. Here, we develop a computational model to test whether this AMPK-mediated glucose import can rapidly restore ATP levels following a transient excitotoxic insult. We demonstrate that a highly compact model, comprising a minimal set of critical reactions, can closely resemble the rapid dynamics and cell-to-cell heterogeneity of ATP levels and AMPK activity, as confirmed by single-cell fluorescence microscopy in rat primary cerebellar neurons exposed to glutamate excitotoxicity. The model further correctly predicted an excitotoxicity-induced elevation of intracellular glucose, and well resembled the delayed recovery and cell-to-cell heterogeneity of experimentally measured glucose dynamics. The model also predicted necrotic bioenergetic collapse and altered calcium dynamics following more severe excitotoxic insults. In conclusion, our data suggest that a minimal set of critical reactions may determine the acute bioenergetic response to transient excitotoxicity and that an AMPK-mediated increase in intracellular glucose may be sufficient to rapidly recover ATP levels following an excitotoxic insult. © 2016 Connolly et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source
Moran C.,23 St. Stephens Green |
Moran C.,National Center for Neurosurgery |
Sanz-Rodriguez A.,23 St. Stephens Green |
Sanz-Rodriguez A.,Center for the Study of Neurological Disorders |
And 17 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease
Prolonged seizures (status epilepticus, SE) can cause neuronal death within brain regions such as the hippocampus. This may contribute to impairments in cognitive functioning and trigger or exacerbate epilepsy. Seizure-induced neuronal death is mediated, at least in part, by apoptosis-associated signaling pathways. Indeed, mice lacking certain members of the potently proapoptotic BH3-only subfamily of Bcl-2 proteins are protected against hippocampal damage caused by status epilepticus. The recently identified BH3-only protein Bcl-2-modifying factor (Bmf) normally interacts with the cytoskeleton, but upon certain cellular stresses, such as loss of extracellular matrix adhesion or energy crisis, Bmf relocalizes to mitochondria, where it can promote Bax activation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although Bmf has been widely reported in the hematopoietic system to exert a proapoptotic effect, no studies have been undertaken in models of neurological disorders. To examine whether Bmf is important for seizure-induced neuronal death, we studied Bmf induction after prolonged seizures induced by intra-amygdala kainic acid (KA) in mice, and examined the effect of Bmf-deficiency on seizures and damage caused by SE. Seizures triggered an early (1-8 h) transcriptional activation and accumulation of Bax in the cell death-susceptible hippocampal CA3 subfield. Bmf mRNA was biphasically upregulated beginning at 1 h after SE and returning to normal by 8 h, while again being found elevated in the hippocampus of epileptic mice. Bmf upregulation was prevented by Compound C, an inhibitor of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, indicating Bmf expression may be induced in response to bioenergetic stress. Bmf-deficient mice showed normal sensitivity to the convulsant effects of KA, but, surprisingly, displayed significantly more neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields after SE. These are the first studies investigating Bmf in a model of neurologic injury, and suggest that Bmf may protect neurons against seizure-induced neuronal death in vivo. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source