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Mancuso P.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Calleri A.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Gregato G.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Labanca V.,Italian National Cancer Institute | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: The endothelium is not a homogeneous organ. Endothelial cell heterogeneity has been described at the level of cell morphology, function, gene expression, and antigen composition. As a consequence of the genetic, transcriptome and surrounding environment diversity, endothelial cells from different vascular beds have differentiated functions and phenotype. Detection of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) by flow cytometry is an approach widely used in cancer patients, and their number, viability and kinetic is a promising tool to stratify patient receiving anti-angiogenic treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings: Currently CECs are identified as positive for a nuclear binding antigen (DNA+), negative for the pan leukocyte marker CD45, and positive for CD31 and CD146. Following an approach recently validated in our laboratory, we investigated the expression of CD109 on CECs from the peripheral blood of healthy subject and cancer patients. The endothelial nature of these cells was validated by RT-PCR for the presence of m-RNA level of CDH5 (Ve-Cadherin) and CLDN5 (Claudin5), two endothelial specific transcripts. Before treatment, significantly higher levels of CD109+ CECs and viable CD109+CECs were found in breast cancer patients and glioblastoma patients compared to healthy controls, and their number significantly decreased after treatment. Higher levels of endothelial specific transcripts expressed in developing endothelial cells CLEC14a, TMEM204, ARHGEF15, GPR116, were observed in sorted CD109+CECs when compared to sorted CD146+CECs, suggesting that these genes can play an important role not only during embryogenesis but also in adult angiogenesis. Interestingly, mRNA levels of TEM8 (identified as Antrax Toxin Receptor1, Antrax1) were expressed in CD109+CECs+ but not in CD146+CECs. Conclusion: Taken together our results suggest that CD109 represent a rare population of circulating tumor endothelial cells, that play a potentially useful prognostic role in patients with glioblastoma. The role of CD109 expression in cancer vessel-specific endothelial cells deserves to be further investigated by gene expression studies. © 2014 Mancuso et al.


PubMed | Fondazione Irccs Instituto Neurologico C Besta, Center for the Study and Treatment of Myelofibrosis and Italian National Cancer Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

The endothelium is not a homogeneous organ. Endothelial cell heterogeneity has been described at the level of cell morphology, function, gene expression, and antigen composition. As a consequence of the genetic, transcriptome and surrounding environment diversity, endothelial cells from different vascular beds have differentiated functions and phenotype. Detection of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) by flow cytometry is an approach widely used in cancer patients, and their number, viability and kinetic is a promising tool to stratify patient receiving anti-angiogenic treatment.Currently CECs are identified as positive for a nuclear binding antigen (DNA+), negative for the pan leukocyte marker CD45, and positive for CD31 and CD146. Following an approach recently validated in our laboratory, we investigated the expression of CD109 on CECs from the peripheral blood of healthy subject and cancer patients. The endothelial nature of these cells was validated by RT-PCR for the presence of m-RNA level of CDH5 (Ve-Cadherin) and CLDN5 (Claudin5), two endothelial specific transcripts. Before treatment, significantly higher levels of CD109+ CECs and viable CD109+CECs were found in breast cancer patients and glioblastoma patients compared to healthy controls, and their number significantly decreased after treatment. Higher levels of endothelial specific transcripts expressed in developing endothelial cells CLEC14a, TMEM204, ARHGEF15, GPR116, were observed in sorted CD109+CECs when compared to sorted CD146+CECs, suggesting that these genes can play an important role not only during embryogenesis but also in adult angiogenesis. Interestingly, mRNA levels of TEM8 (identified as Antrax Toxin Receptor1, Antrax1) were expressed in CD109+CECs+ but not in CD146+CECs.Taken together our results suggest that CD109 represent a rare population of circulating tumor endothelial cells, that play a potentially useful prognostic role in patients with glioblastoma. The role of CD109 expression in cancer vessel-specific endothelial cells deserves to be further investigated by gene expression studies.


PubMed | University of Barcelona, Copenhagen University, Clinical Research Center and Hematology, University of Mannheim and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Leukemia | Year: 2016

The Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal disorders involving hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and are associated with myeloproliferation, splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms. Similar signs and symptoms can also be found in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, and inflammatory processes have been found to play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of MPNs. Signal transduction pathways involving JAK1, JAK2, STAT3 and STAT5 are causally involved in driving both the malignant cells and the inflammatory process. Moreover, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating drugs have been used successfully in the treatment of MPNs. However, to date, many unresoved issues remain. These include the role of somatic mutations that are present in addition to JAK2V617F, CALR and MPL W515 mutations, the interdependency of malignant and nonmalignant cells and the means to eradicate MPN-initiating and -maintaining cells. It is imperative for successful therapeutic approaches to define whether the malignant clone or the inflammatory cells or both should be targeted. The present review will cover three aspects of the role of inflammation in MPNs: inflammatory states as important differential diagnoses in cases of suspected MPN (that is, in the absence of a clonal marker), the role of inflammation in MPN pathogenesis and progression and the use of anti-inflammatory drugs for MPNs. The findings emphasize the need to separate the inflammatory processes from the malignancy in order to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of patients with Philadelphia-negative MPNs.


Catarsi P.,Center for the Study and Treatment of Myelofibrosis | Rosti V.,Center for the Study and Treatment of Myelofibrosis | Morreale G.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Poletto V.,Center for the Study and Treatment of Myelofibrosis | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is an acquired clonal disease of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment, characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, anemia, splenomegaly and extramedullary hematopoiesis. About 60% of patients with PMF harbor a somatic mutation of the JAK2 gene (JAK2-V617F) in their hematopoietic lineage. Recently, a splicing isoform of JAK2, lacking exon 14 (JAK2δ14) was described in patients affected by myeloproliferative diseases. Materials and Methods By using a specific RT-qPCR method, we measured the ratio between the splicing isoform and the JAK2 full-length transcript (JAK2+14) in granulocytes, isolated from peripheral blood, of forty-four patients with PMF and nine healthy donors. Results We found that JAK2δ14 was only slightly increased in patients, at variance with published data, the splicing isoform was also detectable in healthy controls. We also found that, in patients bearing the JAK2-V617F mutation, the percentage of mutated alleles correlated with the observed increase in JAK2δ14. Homozygosity for the mutation was also associated with a higher level of JAK2+14. Bioinformatic analysis indicates the possibility that the G> T transversion may interfere with the correct splicing of exon 14 by modifying a splicing regulatory sequence. Conclusions Increased levels of JAK2 full-length transcript and a small but significant increase in JAK2 exon 14 skipping, are associated with the JAK2-V617F allele burden in PMF granulocytes. Our data do not confirm a previous claim that the production of the JAK2δ14 isoform is related to the pathogenesis of PMF. © 2015 Catarsi et al.


Mantelli M.,Immunology and Transplantation Laboratory Cell Factory Paediatric Haematology Oncology | Avanzini M.A.,Immunology and Transplantation Laboratory Cell Factory Paediatric Haematology Oncology | Rosti V.,Center for the Study and Treatment of Myelofibrosis | Ingo D.M.,Immunology and Transplantation Laboratory Cell Factory Paediatric Haematology Oncology | And 26 more authors.
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2015

Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an inherited disorder characterized by pancytopenia, congenital malformations and a predisposition to develop malignancies. Alterations in the haematopoietic microenvironment of FA patients have been reported, but little is known regarding the components of their bone marrow (BM) stroma. We characterized mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) isolated from BM of 18 FA patients both before and after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Morphology, fibroblast colony-forming unit (CFU-F) ability, proliferative capacity, immunophenotype, differentiation potential, ability to support long-term haematopoiesis and immunomodulatory properties of FA-MSCs were analysed and compared with those of MSCs expanded from 15 age-matched healthy donors (HD-MSCs). FA-MSCs were genetically characterized through conventional karyotyping, diepoxybutane-test and array-comparative genomic hybridization. FA-MSCs generated before and after HSCT were compared. Morphology, immunophenotype, differentiation potential, ability in vitro to inhibit mitogen-induced T-cell proliferation and to support long-term haematopoiesis did not differ between FA-MSCs and HD-MSCs. CFU-F ability and proliferative capacity of FA-MSCs isolated after HSCT were significantly lower than those of HD-MSCs. FA-MSCs reached senescence significantly earlier than HD-MSCs and showed spontaneous chromosome fragility. Our findings indicate that FA-MSCs are defective in their ability to survive in vitro and display spontaneous chromosome breakages; whether these defects are involved in pathophysiology of BM failure syndromes deserves further investigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


PubMed | Laboratory of Cytogenetic and Molecular Onco haematology, University of Pavia, Clinical Epidemiology and Biometrics Unit, Center for the Study and Treatment of Myelofibrosis and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: British journal of haematology | Year: 2015

Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an inherited disorder characterized by pancytopenia, congenital malformations and a predisposition to develop malignancies. Alterations in the haematopoietic microenvironment of FA patients have been reported, but little is known regarding the components of their bone marrow (BM) stroma. We characterized mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) isolated from BM of 18 FA patients both before and after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Morphology, fibroblast colony-forming unit (CFU-F) ability, proliferative capacity, immunophenotype, differentiation potential, ability to support long-term haematopoiesis and immunomodulatory properties of FA-MSCs were analysed and compared with those of MSCs expanded from 15 age-matched healthy donors (HD-MSCs). FA-MSCs were genetically characterized through conventional karyotyping, diepoxybutane-test and array-comparative genomic hybridization. FA-MSCs generated before and after HSCT were compared. Morphology, immunophenotype, differentiation potential, ability invitro to inhibit mitogen-induced T-cell proliferation and to support long-term haematopoiesis did not differ between FA-MSCs and HD-MSCs. CFU-F ability and proliferative capacity of FA-MSCs isolated after HSCT were significantly lower than those of HD-MSCs. FA-MSCs reached senescence significantly earlier than HD-MSCs and showed spontaneous chromosome fragility. Our findings indicate that FA-MSCs are defective in their ability to survive invitro and display spontaneous chromosome breakages; whether these defects are involved in pathophysiology of BM failure syndromes deserves further investigation.

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