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Hyder J.A.,Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery | Hebl J.R.,Mayo Medical School
Anesthesiology Clinics | Year: 2015

Anesthesiologists are obligated to demonstrate the value of the care they provide. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has multiple performance-based payment programs to drive high-value care and motivate integrated care for surgical patients and hospitalized patients. These programs rely on diverse arrays of performance measures and complex reporting rules. Among all specialties, anesthesiology has tremendous potential to effect wide-ranging change on diverse measures. Performance measures deserve scrutiny by anesthesiologists as tools to improve care, the means by which payment is determined, and as a means to demonstrate the value of care to surgeons, hospitals, and patients. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Jackson G.L.,Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care | Jackson G.L.,Duke University | Zullig L.L.,Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care | Zullig L.L.,Duke University | And 7 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND The current study was performed to determine whether patient characteristics, including race/ethnicity, were associated with patient-reported care coordination for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) who were treated in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system, with the goal of better understanding potential goals of quality improvement efforts aimed at improving coordination. METHODS The nationwide Cancer Care Assessment and Responsive Evaluation Studies survey involved VA patients with CRC who were diagnosed in 2008 (response rate, 67%). The survey included a 4-item scale of patient-reported frequency ("never," "sometimes," "usually," and "always") of care coordination activities (scale score range, 1-4). Among 913 patients with CRC who provided information regarding care coordination, demographics, and symptoms, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine odds of patients reporting optimal care coordination. RESULTS VA patients with CRC were found to report high levels of care coordination (mean scale score, 3.50 [standard deviation, 0.61]). Approximately 85% of patients reported a high level of coordination, including the 43% reporting optimal/highest-level coordination. There was no difference observed in the odds of reporting optimal coordination by race/ethnicity. Patients with early-stage disease (odds ratio [OR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.45-0.81), greater pain (OR, 0.97 for a 1-point increase in pain scale; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), and greater levels of depression (OR, 0.97 for a 1-point increase in depression scale; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99) were less likely to report optimal coordination. CONCLUSIONS Patients with CRC in the VA reported high levels of care coordination. Unlike what has been reported in settings outside the VA, there appears to be no racial/ethnic disparity in reported coordination. However, challenges remain in ensuring coordination of care for patients with less advanced disease and a high symptom burden. Cancer 2015;121:2207-2213. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

Wu L.,Center for Clinical and Translational Science | Wang Z.,Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery | Zhu J.,University of Minnesota | Murad A.L.,Dan Abraham Healthy Living Center | And 3 more authors.
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2015

Context: The identification of foods that can decrease the risk of cancer and type 2 diabetes may be helpful in reducing the burden of these diseases. Although nut consumption has been suggested to have a disease-preventive role, current evidence remains inconsistent. Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to clarify the association between nut consumption and risk of cancer or type 2 diabetes. Data Sources: Six databases were searched for relevant studies from the time of database inception to August 2014. Reference lists of relevant review articles were hand searched, and authors were contacted when data were insufficient. Study Selection: Eligible studies included epidemiological studies (case-control and cohort) or clinical trials that reported an association between nut consumption and the outcome of type 2 diabetes or specific cancers. Data Extraction: Two investigators independently extracted descriptive, quality, and risk data from included studies. Data Synthesis: Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool relative risks from the included studies. The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. A total of 36 eligible observational studies, which included 30 708 patients, were identified. The studies had fair methodological quality, and length of follow-up ranged between 4.6 years and 30 years. Comparison of the highest category of nut consumption with the lowest category revealed significant associations between nut consumption and decreased risk of colorectal cancer (3 studies each with separate estimates for males and females, RR 0.76, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.61-0.96), endometrial cancer (2 studies, RR 0.58, 95%CI 0.43-0.79), and pancreatic cancer (1 study, RR 0.68, 95%CI 0.48-0.96). No significant association was found with other cancers or type 2 diabetes. Overall, nut consumption was significantly associated with a reduced risk of cancer incidence (RR 0.85, 95%CI 0.76-0.95). Conclusions: Nut consumption may play a role in reducing cancer risk. Additional studies are needed to more accurately assess the relationship between nut consumption and the prevention of individual types of cancer, given the scarcity of available data. © The Author(s) 2015.

Bellolio M.F.,Mayo Medical School | Bellolio M.F.,Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery | Gilani W.I.,Mayo Medical School | Barrionuevo P.,Mayo Medical School | And 8 more authors.
Academic Emergency Medicine | Year: 2016

Objectives This was a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence of adverse events in adults undergoing procedural sedation in the emergency department (ED). Methods Eight electronic databases were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, and Scopus, from January 2005 through 2015. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies of adults undergoing procedural sedation in the ED that reported a priori selected outcomes and adverse events were included. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model and reported as incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The search yielded 2,046 titles for review. Fifty-five articles were eligible, including 9,652 procedural sedations. The most common adverse event was hypoxia, with an incidence of 40.2 per 1,000 sedations (95% CI = 32.5 to 47.9), followed by vomiting with 16.4 per 1,000 sedations (95% CI = 9.7 to 23.0) and hypotension with 15.2 per 1,000 sedations (95% CI = 10.7 to 19.7). Severe adverse events requiring emergent medical intervention were rare, with one case of aspiration in 2,370 sedations (1.2 per 1,000), one case of laryngospasm in 883 sedations (4.2 per 1,000), and two intubations in 3,636 sedations (1.6 per 1,000). The incidence of agitation and vomiting were higher with ketamine (164.1 per 1,000 and 170.0 per 1,000, respectively). Apnea was more frequent with midazolam (51.4 per 1,000), and hypoxia was less frequent in patients who received ketamine/propofol compared to other combinations. The case of laryngospasm was in a patient who received ketamine, and the aspiration and intubations were in patients who received propofol. When propofol and ketamine are combined, the incidences of agitation, apnea, hypoxia, bradycardia, hypotension, and vomiting were lower compared to each medication separately. Conclusions Serious adverse events during procedural sedation like laryngospasm, aspiration, and intubation are exceedingly rare. Quantitative risk estimates are provided to facilitate shared decision-making, risk communication, and informed consent. © 2016 The Authors. Academic Emergency Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

Yu D.,Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery | Yu D.,Mayo Medical School | Blocker R.C.,Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery | Blocker R.C.,Mayo Medical School | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Medical Systems | Year: 2016

Sociometers are wearable sensors that continuously measure body movements, interactions, and speech. The purpose of this study is to test sociometers in a smart environment in a live clinical setting, to assess their reliability in capturing and quantifying data. The long-term goal of this work is to create an intelligent emergency department that captures real-time human interactions using sociometers to sense current system dynamics, predict future state, and continuously learn to enable the highest levels of emergency care delivery. Ten actors wore the devices during five simulated scenarios in the emergency care wards at a large non-profit medical institution. For each scenario, actors recited prewritten or structured dialogue while independent variables, e.g., distance, angle, obstructions, speech behavior, were independently controlled. Data streams from the sociometers were compared to gold standard video and audio data captured by two ward and hallway cameras. Sociometers distinguished body movement differences in mean angular velocity between individuals sitting, standing, walking intermittently, and walking continuously. Face-to-face (F2F) interactions were not detected when individuals were offset by 30°, 60°, and 180° angles. Under ideal F2F conditions, interactions were detected 50 % of the time (4/8 actor pairs). Proximity between individuals was detected for 13/15 actor pairs. Devices underestimated the mean duration of speech by 30–44 s, but were effective at distinguishing the dominant speaker. The results inform engineers to refine sociometers and provide health system researchers a tool for quantifying the dynamics and behaviors in complex and unpredictable healthcare environments such as emergency care. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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