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Singh J.A.,University of Toronto | Singh J.A.,Center for the Programme of Research in South Africa | Daar A.S.,University of Toronto | Singer P.A.,University of Toronto
BMC Public Health | Year: 2010

Background: The defining event in the area of infant feeding is the aggressive marketing of infant formula in the developing world by transnational companies in the 1970s. This practice shattered the trust of the global health community in the private sector, culminated in a global boycott of Nestle products and has extended to distrust of all commercial efforts to improve infant and young child nutrition. The lack of trust is a key barrier along the critical path to optimal infant and young child nutrition in the developing world. Discussion: To begin to bridge this gap in trust, we developed a set of shared principles based on the following ideals: Integrity; Solidarity; Justice; Equality; Partnership, cooperation, coordination, and communication; Responsible Activity; Sustainability; Transparency; Private enterprise and scale-up; and Fair trading and consumer choice. We hope these principles can serve as a platform on which various parties in the in the infant and young child nutrition arena, can begin a process of authentic trust-building that will ultimately result in coordinated efforts amongst parties. Summary: A set of shared principles of ethics for infant and young child nutrition in the developing world could catalyze the scale-up of low cost, high quality, complementary foods for infants and young children, and eventually contribute to the eradication of infant and child malnutrition in the developing world. © 2010 Singh et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Phili R.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Abdool-Karim Q.,Center for the Programme of Research in South Africa | Ngesa O.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2014

Introduction: The provision of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services was piloted in three public sector facilities in a high HIV disease burden, low circumcision rate province in South Africa to inform policy and operational guidance for scale-up of the service for HIV prevention. We report on adverse events (AEs) experienced by clients following the circumcision procedure. Copyright:Methods: Prospective recruitment of HIV-negative males aged 12 and older volunteering to be circumcised at three select public health facilities in KwaZulu-Natal between November 2010 and May 2011. Volunteers underwent standardized medical screening including a physical assessment prior to the surgical procedure being performed. AEs were monitored at three time intervals over a 21-day period post-operatively to determine safety outcomes in this pilot demonstration programme. Results: A total of 602 volunteers participated in this study. The median age of the volunteers was 22 years (range 12-56). Most participants (75.6%) returned for the 48-hour post-operative visit; 51.0% for day seven visit and 26.1% for the 21st day visit. Participants aged 20-24 were most likely to return. The AE rate was 0.2% intra-operatively. The frequency of moderate AEs was 0.7, 0.3 and 0.6% at 2-, 7-and 21-day visits, respectively. The frequency of severe AEs was 0.4, 0.3 and 0.6% at 2-, 7-and 21-day visits, respectively. Swelling and wound infection were the most common AEs with mean appearance duration of seven days. Clients aged between 35 and 56 years presented with most AEs (3.0%).Conclusions: VMMC can be delivered safely at resource-limited settings. The intensive three-visit post-operative review practice may be unfeasible due to high attrition rates over time, particularly amongst older men. © 2014 Phili R et al. Source


Penrose K.J.,University of Pittsburgh | Richardson B.A.,University of Washington | Besson G.,University of Pittsburgh | Dezzutti C.S.,University of Pittsburgh | And 5 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2014

Background: The inability to quantify sexual exposure to HIV limits the power of HIV prevention trials of vaccines, microbicides, and preexposure prophylaxis in women. We investigated the detection of HIV-1 and Y chromosomal (Yc) DNA in vaginal swabs from 83 participants in the HPTN 035 microbicide trial as biomarkers of HIV exposure and unprotected sexual activity. Methods: One hundred forty-three vaginal swabs from 85 women were evaluated for the presence of Yc DNA (Quantifiler Duo DNA quantification kit; Applied Biosystems) and total HIV-1 DNA (single-copy in-house quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay). Y DNA detection was paired with self-reported behavioral data with regard to recent coitus (â ‰1 week before collection) and condom usage (100% vs. <100% compliance). Results: Yc DNA was detected in 62 (43%) of 143 swabs. For the 126 visits at which both behavioral data and swabs were collected, Yc DNA was significantly more frequent in women reporting less than 100% condom usage (odds ratio, 10.69; 95% confidence interval, 2.27-50.32; P = 0.003). Notably, 27 (33%) of 83 swabs from women reporting 100% condom usage were positive for Yc DNA. HIV DNA was only detected in swabs collected postseroconversion. Conclusions: The use of Yc DNA in HIV prevention trials could reliably identify subgroups of women who have unprotected sexual activity and could provide valuable exposure-based estimates of efficacy. © 2014 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association All rights reserved. Source


Drain P.K.,Medical Practice Evaluation Center | Drain P.K.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Gounder L.,National Health Laboratory Service | Grobler A.,Center for the Programme of Research in South Africa | And 4 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2015

Objective: To determine if urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) may serve as a biomarker to monitor antituberculosis (TB) therapy response, and whether LAM results before and after treatment are predictive of patient outcomes. Design: Prospective cohort. Setting: Outpatient referral clinic and tertiary hospital in South Africa. Participants: Adults (≥18 years) with ≥2 TB-related symptoms (cough, fever, weight loss, night sweats) for ≥2 weeks being initiated on anti-TB therapy. Interventions: On enrolment, we obtained urine and nebulised sputum specimens, offered HIV testing and started participants on anti-TB therapy for ≥6 months. We collected urine samples after the 2-month intensive treatment phase and at the completion of anti-TB therapy. Positive LAM results were graded from 1 (low) to 5 (high). Participants were followed for >3 years. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was change in urine LAM results during anti-TB therapy. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality. Results: Among 90 participants, 57 (63%) had culture-confirmed pulmonary TB. Among the 88 participants tested, 82 (93%) were HIV-infected with median CD4 168/mm3 (IQR 89-256/mm3). During anti-TB therapy, the percentage of LAM-positive participants decreased from baseline to 2 months (32% to 16%), and from baseline to 6-months (32% to 10%) ( p values <0.005). In multivariate longitudinal analyses, urine LAM positivity and grade decreased among those with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB (p<0.0001), and had no change in sputum culture-negative participants. At the 2-month visit, participants with positive laboratory-based LAM or rapid LAM with ≥2+ grade had a significantly greater risk of mortality. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, baseline Karnofsky score and HIV status, participants with a rapid LAM ≥2+ grade after 2 months of anti-TB therapy had a 5.6-fold (95% CI 1.2 to 25.2) greater risk of mortality. Conclusions: Rapid urine LAM testing may be a valuable tool to monitor anti-TB therapy response and to assess prognosis of patients being treated for pulmonary TB in HIV-endemic regions. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Source


Kraemer J.D.,Georgetown University | Cabrera O.A.,Georgetown University | Singh J.A.,Center for the Programme of Research in South Africa | Singh J.A.,Gates Canada Inc. | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2011

In low-income countries, tuberculosis (TB) control measures should be guided by ethical concerns and human rights obligations. Control programs should consider the principles of necessity, reasonableness and effectiveness of means, proportionality, distributive justice, and transparency. Certain measures - detention, infection control, and treatment to prevent transmission - raise particular concerns. While isolation is appropriate under certain circumstances, quarantine is never an acceptable control measure for TB, and any detention must be limited by necessity and conducted humanely. States have a duty to implement hospital infection control to the extent of their available resources and to provide treatment to health care workers (HCWs) infected on the job. HCWs, in turn, have an obligation to provide care unless conditions are unreasonably and unforeseeably unsafe. Finally, states have an obligation to provide adequate access to treatment, as a means of preventing transmission, as broadly as possible and in a non-discriminatory fashion. Along with treatment, states should provide support to increase treatment adherence and retention with respect for patient privacy and autonomy. Compulsory treatment is almost never acceptable. Governments should take care to respect human rights and ethical obligations as they execute TB control programs. © 2011 The Union. Source

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