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Karim Q.A.,Center for the Program of Research in South Africa | Karim Q.A.,Columbia University | Kharsany A.B.M.,Center for the Program of Research in South Africa | Naidoo K.,Center for the Program of Research in South Africa | And 9 more authors.
Contemporary Clinical Trials | Year: 2011

Background: In settings where multiple HIV prevention trials are conducted in close proximity, trial participants may attempt to enroll in more than one trial simultaneously. Co-enrollment impacts on participant's safety and validity of trial results. We describe our experience, remedial action taken, inter-organizational collaboration and lessons learnt following the identification of co-enrolled participants. Experiences: Between February and April 2008, we identified 185 of the 398 enrolled participants as ineligible. In violation of the study protocol exclusion criteria, there was simultaneous enrollment in another HIV prevention trial (ineligible co-enrolled, n = 135), and enrollment of women who had participated in a microbicide trial within the past 12. months (ineligible not co-enrolled, n = 50). Following a complete audit of all enrolled participants, ineligible participants were discontinued via study exit visits from trial follow-up. Custom-designed education program on co-enrollment impacting on participants' safety and validity of the trial results was implemented. Shared electronic database between research units was established to enable verification of each volunteer's trial participation and to prevent future co-enrollments. Lessons learnt: Interviews with ineligible enrolled women revealed that high-quality care, financial incentives, altruistic motives, preference for sex with gel, wanting to increase their likelihood of receiving active gel, perceived low risk of discovery and peer pressure are the reasons for their enrollment in the CAPRISA 004 trial. Conclusion: Instituting education programs based on the reasons reported by women for seeking enrollment in more than one trial and using a shared central database system to identify co-enrollments have effectively prevented further co-enrollments. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Matthews L.T.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Matthews L.T.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Matthews L.T.,Harvard University | Sibeko S.,Center for the Program of Research in South Africa | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Antiretroviral prophylaxis may be a critical strategy to reduce periconception HIV transmission. Maximizing the benefit of periconception pharmacologic HIV risk-reduction requires an understanding of the links between pregnancy and adherence to this prevention strategy. Methods: We assessed study gel adherence among women with pregnancies compared to women without pregnancies enrolled in the CAPRISA 004 phase IIB trial of 1% vaginal tenofovir gel. Pregnancy was assessed with monthly urine tests. Adherence was measured monthly and defined as proportion of sex acts covered by two returned, used applicators based on pre- and post-coital dosing. High adherence was defined as a median adherence score of >80%, that is, more than 80% of sex acts were covered by two applications of study gel. A multivariate generalized estimating equations (GEE) model with a binomial distribution was used to assess covariates associated with high adherence (>80%) over time. Median adherence before and after pregnancy was compared using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Among 868 women, 53 had at least 1 pregnancy (4.06 per 100 woman years, 95% CI: 3.04, 5.31). Women with pregnancies had lower median adherence compared to women without pregnancies (50% [IQR: 45-83] vs. 60% [IQR: 50-100], p = 0.02). Women with pregnancies also had a 48% lower odds of high adherence compared to women without pregnancies when adjusting for confounders (aOR 0.52, 95%CI: 0.41-0.66, p<0.0001). Among women with pregnancies, adherence before and after pregnancy was not different (50% [IQR: 46-83] vs. 55% [IQR: 20-100], p = 0.68). Conclusions: Women with pregnancies were less likely to have high adherence to study gel compared to women without pregnancies. Understanding these differences may inform findings from HIV prevention trials and future implementation of antiretroviral prophylaxis for at-risk women who choose to conceive. The protocol for the parent trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00441298, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00441298. © 2013 Matthews et al. Source

Succop S.M.,Social and Behavioral Health science | Macqueen K.M.,Social and Behavioral Health science | Van Loggerenberg F.,Center for the Program of Research in South Africa | Majola N.,Center for the Program of Research in South Africa | And 2 more authors.
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2014

Disclosure, or open communication, by female microbicide trial participants of their trial participation and use of an investigational HIV prevention drug to a sexual partner may affect participants' trial product usage behavior and contribute to poor adherence. With mixed results from recent microbicide clinical trials being linked to differing participant adherence, insights into the communication dynamics between trial participants and their sexual partners are particularly important. We examined the quantitative association between (1) communication of trial participation to a partner and participant adherence to gel and (2) communication of trial participation to a partner and participant HIV status. An in-depth adherence and product acceptability assessment was administered to the women participating in the CAPRISA 004 trial. Additionally, we collected qualitative data related to communication of trial participation and gel use. Qualitatively, among 165 women who had reported that they had discussed trial participation with others, most (68%) stated that they communicated participation to their sexual partner. Most of the women who had communicated study participation with their partners had received a positive/neutral response from their partner. Some of these women stated that gel use was easy; only a small number said that gel use was difficult. Among women who did not communicate their study participation to their partners, difficulty with gel use was more common and some women stated that they feared communicating their participation. Quantitatively, there was no statistically significant difference in the proportions of women who had communicated study participation to a partner across different adherence levels or HIV status. A deeper knowledge of the dynamics surrounding trial participation communication to male partners will be critical to understanding the spectrum of trial product usage behavior, and ultimately to designing tailored strategies to assist trial participants with product adherence. © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

Karim Q.A.,Center for the Program of Research in South Africa | Karim Q.A.,Columbia University | Karim S.S.A.,Center for the Program of Research in South Africa | Karim S.S.A.,Columbia University | And 15 more authors.
Science | Year: 2010

The Centre for the AIDS Program of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) 004 trial assessed the effectiveness and safety of a 1% vaginal gel formulation of tenofovir, a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor, for the prevention of HIV acquisition in women. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted comparing tenofovir gel (n = 445 women) with placebo gel (n = 444 women) in sexually active, HIV-uninfected 18- to 40-year-old women in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. HIV serostatus, safety, sexual behavior, and gel and condom use were assessed at monthly follow-up visits for 30 months. HIV incidence in the tenofovir gel arm was 5.6 per 100 women-years (person time of study observation) (38 out of 680.6 women-years) compared with 9.1 per 100 women-years (60 out of 660.7 women-years) in the placebo gel arm (incidence rate ratio = 0.61; P = 0.017). In high adherers (gel adherence > 80%), HIV incidence was 54% lower (P = 0.025) in the tenofovir gel arm. In intermediate adherers (gel adherence 50 to 80%) and low adherers (gel adherence < 50%), the HIV incidence reduction was 38 and 28%, respectively. Tenofovir gel reduced HIV acquisition by an estimated 39% overall, and by 54% in women with high gel adherence. No increase in the overall adverse event rates was observed. There were no changes in viral load and no tenofovir resistance in HIV seroconverters. Tenofovir gel could potentially fill an important HIV prevention gap, especially for women unable to successfully negotiate mutual monogamy or condom use. Source

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