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Elli L.,Center for the Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease | Tomba C.,Center for the Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease | Tomba C.,University of Milan | Branchi F.,Center for the Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease | And 27 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2016

Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is characterized by the onset of symptoms after eating gluten-containing food. We aimed to single out NCGS subjects among subjects with functional gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients were enrolled in a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled trial with crossover. Symptoms and quality of life were evaluated by means of 10-cm VAS and SF36. Iron parameters, transaminases and C reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated. After a three-week-long gluten-free diet (GFD), responsive patients were randomly assigned to gluten intake (5.6 g/day) or placebo for seven days, followed by crossover. The primary endpoint was the worsening of symptoms (VAS increase ≥3 cm) during gluten ingestion compared to placebo. One hundred and forty patients were enrolled and 134 (17 males, mean age 39.1 ± 11.7 years, BMI 22.4 ± 3.8) completed the first period. A total of 101 subjects (10 males, mean age 39.3 ± 11.0 years, BMI 22.3 ± 4.0) reported a symptomatic improvement (VAS score 2.3 ± 1.2 vs. 6.5 ± 2.2 before and after GFD, p = 0.001). 98 patients underwent the gluten challenge and 28 (all females, mean age 38.9 ± 12.7 years, BMI 22.0 ± 2.9) reported a symptomatic relapse and deterioration of quality of life. No parameters were found to be statistically associated with positivity to the challenge. However, 14 patients responded to the placebo ingestion. Taking into account this finding, about 14% of patients responding to gluten withdrawal showed a symptomatic relapse during the gluten challenge. This group is suspected to have NCGS. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Elli L.,Center for the Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease | Elli L.,University of Milan | Branchi F.,Center for the Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease | Branchi F.,University of Milan | And 10 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

Cereal crops and cereal consumption have had a vital role in Mankind's history. In the recent years gluten ingestion has been linked with a range of clinical disorders. Gluten-related disorders have gradually emerged as an epidemiologically relevant phenomenon with an estimated global prevalence around 5%. Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity represent different gluten-related disorders. Similar clinical manifestations can be observed in these disorders, yet there are peculiar pathogenetic pathways involved in their development. Celiac disease and wheat allergy have been extensively studied, while non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a relatively novel clinical entity, believed to be closely related to other gastrointestinal functional syndromes. The diagnosis of celiac disease and wheat allergy is based on a combination of findings from the patient's clinical history and specific tests, including serology and duodenal biopsies in case of celiac disease, or laboratory and functional assays for wheat allergy. On the other hand, non-celiac gluten sensitivity is still mainly a diagnosis of exclusion, in the absence of clear-cut diagnostic criteria. A multimodal pragmatic approach combining findings from the clinical history, symptoms, serological and histological tests is required in order to reach an accurate diagnosis. A thorough knowledge of the differences and overlap in clinical presentation among gluten-related disorders, and between them and other gastrointestinal disorders, will help clinicians in the process of differential diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2015. Source

Branchi F.,Center for the Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease | Branchi F.,University of Milan | Ferretti F.,University of Milan | Norsa L.,University of Milan | And 5 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2015

Background and Aim. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity is syndrome characterized by symptoms disappearing after a gluten-free diet. Its existence is still argument of discussion among specialists. Our aim was to evaluate the knowledge about nonceliac gluten sensitivity among gastroenterology specialists. Methods. During October 2013 a questionnaire was sent through a medical newsletter to Italian gastroenterologists. Twelve questions investigated their knowledge on nonceliac gluten sensitivity, including their diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Results. A total of 212 gastroenterologists filled in the questionnaire. The 98.6% were aware of the existence of a syndrome called "nonceliac gluten sensitivity" and 77% believe in its existence. However, only 56% gave a correct definition of the term. The majority of specialists diagnosed gluten sensitive patients and the number of diagnoses was not statistically different from that of celiac disease. Moreover, a gluten-free diet was prescribed by 64% of the specialists and among them the 73% noted an increase of gluten sensitive patients attending their outpatient services. Conclusions. Our study indicated that most of the specialists recognize nonceliac gluten sensitivity and prescribe gluten-free diet, although 44% of the specialists are not able to give its correct definition; underlining the necessity of medical education on this topic is needed. © 2015 Federica Branchi et al. Source

Branchi F.,Center for the Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease | Branchi F.,University of Milan | Locatelli M.,Center for the Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease | Locatelli M.,University of Milan | And 6 more authors.
Digestive and Liver Disease | Year: 2016

Celiac disease is the most common autoimmune enteropathy in Western countries, and is usually associated with a good response to the gluten free diet and an excellent prognosis. However, a minority of patients develop complications of the disease, such as refractory celiac disease, ulcerative jejunoileitis and neoplastic complications such as adenocarcinoma of the small bowel and enteropathy associated T cell lymphoma. Neoplastic complications described in association with celiac disease have a high mortality rate, due to their aggressive behavior and to the usual advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. In recent years, the detection of small bowel lesions has dramatically improved thank to the availability of highly performing radiologic and endoscopic techniques. The diagnostic delay of malignant complications in patients with celiac disease may be improved by establishing a pragmatic flowchart for the identification and follow up of "at risk" patients. We performed a comprehensive review of the articles published on this issue in order to promote a roadmap to be applied when facing with celiac patients with suspected small bowel complications. © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l.. Source

Tomba C.,Center for the Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease | Tomba C.,University of Milan | Sidhu R.,Gastroenterology and Liver Unit | Sanders D.S.,Gastroenterology and Liver Unit | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2016

Background: Indications to double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) are not standardized in celiac disease (CD). Goals: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of DBE in complicated CD. Study: DBE findings in celiac patients with suspected small bowel (SB) complications were retrospectively evaluated in 2 tertiary referral centers (Milan and Sheffield). Demographic data of the studied cohort were compared with a database of 1000 noncomplicated CD patients. Results: Twenty-four CD cases (12 males, P=0.01 vs. controls) were reviewed. Mean age at CD diagnosis (y±SD) was 37±20 versus 27±18 and at SB evaluation 47±15 versus 38±13 (P<0.01 compared with controls). Indications for DBE were refractory CD (#9), gastrointestinal symptoms (#6), severe iron-deficiency anemia (#6), and long standing poor dietary adherence (#3). Two jejunal adenocarcinomas and an ileal neuroendocrine tumor were detected in presence of iron-deficiency anemia. Three type I and 3 type II refractory CD patients showed jejunal ulcerations; 2 of type II presented small white raised patches. Patchy atrophy was observed in nonadherent patients and in 2 on a gluten-free diet for a short time. Therapy was planned in 33% of patients after DBE. No adverse events were detected at follow-up [21 mo (range, 0 to 60 mo)]. Conclusions: This is the largest international study on the outcomes of DBE in CD demonstrating its usefulness to exclude/confirm malignant or premalignant conditions, associated with even minor lesions. Studies are needed to understand the clinical relevance of the SB endoscopic features and to optimize DBE indications. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Source

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