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Parker A.L.,University of Bristol | Parker A.L.,Center for the Observation and Modelling of Earthquakes | Biggs J.,University of Bristol | Biggs J.,Center for the Observation and Modelling of Earthquakes | And 8 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2015

Satellite Radar Interferometry (InSAR) is suited to monitoring ground deformation on the scale of volcanic arcs, providing insight into the eruptive cycle over both long and short time periods. However, these measurements are often contaminated with atmospheric artefacts caused by changes in the refractivity of the atmosphere. Here, we test the use of two large-scale atmospheric models, ERA-Interim (ERA-I) and North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), to correct atmospheric uncertainties in InSAR data from the Cascades Volcanic Arc, United States. At Lassen Volcanic Center, we find that NARR reduces interferogram standard deviation in 79% of cases by an average of 22%.Using NARR, we develop a strategy to produce a priori estimates of atmospheric uncertainties on an arc-wide basis. We show that in the Cascades, the RMS variation in range change is dependent upon volcano topography and increases by 0.7. cm per kilometre of relief. We use this to estimate detection thresholds for long-term monitoring of small magnitude (1. cm/yr) deformation signals, and short-term monitoring of ground deformation associated with pre-eruptive unrest. This new approach of assessing atmospheric uncertainties a priori is widely applicable to other volcanic arcs, and provides realistic estimates of atmospheric uncertainties suitable for use in near-real-time analysis of InSAR data during periods of volcanic unrest. © 2015 The Authors.

Parker A.L.,University of Bristol | Parker A.L.,Center for the Observation and Modelling of Earthquakes | Parker A.L.,Curtin University Australia | Biggs J.,University of Bristol | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research | Year: 2016

Observations of volcanic subsidence have contributed to our understanding of the eruption cycle, hydrothermal systems and the formation of continental crust. Lassen Volcanic Center is one of two volcanoes in the southern Cascades known to have subsided in recent decades, but the onset, temporal evolution, and cause of subsidence remain unconstrained. Here we use multiple sets of InSAR data, each corrected using the North American Regional Reanalysis atmospheric model, to determine the temporal and spatial characteristics of deformation between 1992 and 2010. Throughout this period all datasets reveal subsidence of a broad, 30-40 km wide region at rates of ~10 mm/yr. Evaluating past geodetic studies we suggest that subsidence may have been ongoing since the 1980s, before which it is unlikely that significant ground deformation occurred. By combining multiple tracks of InSAR data we find that the ratio of horizontal to vertical displacements is high (up to 3:1), and source inversions favour a point source located at ~8 km depth. Time-series analysis suggests that the rate of volume change of this source may have varied over time. The source geometry and the temporal evolution of deformation contrasts to subsidence observed at nearby Medicine Lake Volcano since the 1950s. We evaluate possible causes of subsidence at Lassen Volcanic Center in light of tectonic setting and hydrothermal activity, and suggest that regional GPS measurements will be key to understanding the role of crustal extension plus other hydrothermal/magmatic processes in deformation during recent decades. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

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