Ekasari J.,Bogor Agricultural University |
Ekasari J.,Ghent University |
Angela D.,Bogor Agricultural University |
Waluyo S.H.,Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology |
And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2014
The effect of biofloc size on the nutritional composition of the flocs and the nitrogen utilization by white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and mussels (Perna viridis) was investigated. Biofloc was collected from a shrimp culture unit and labeled with (15NcH4)2SO4. The flocs were sieved grouping them into 4 different size classes (un-sieved, <48μm, 48-100μm, and >100μm) and subsequently offered to shrimp, red tilapia and mussels. The biofloc class of >100μm contained the highest levels of protein (27.8%) and lipid (7.5%), whereas the biofloc of <48μm seemed to be richest in essential amino acids. Based on the Essential Amino Acid Index (EAAI), biofloc produced in this study can be considered as a good quality protein source for shrimp (0.93-0.97) and a useful protein source for tilapia (0.83-0.90) and mussel (0.81-0.88). The total amount of nitrogen that could be derived from biofloc was the highest when the biofloc was larger than 100μm, i.e. 4.06gN/kg shrimp, 3.79gN/kg tilapia, and 1.17gN/kg mussel, respectively. The nitrogen recovery from the biofloc, however, was the highest when the floc was <48μm. Overall, this study showed that biofloc consumption by shrimp, red tilapia and mussels occurs irrespective of floc size but that floc size can play an important role in the quality of biofloc in terms of nutritional composition and nitrogen retention by the animals. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Nurlidar F.,Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology |
Budianto E.,University of Indonesia |
Darwis D.,Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology |
Sugiarto,Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology
Macromolecular Symposia | Year: 2015
Summary Bacterial cellulose (BC), biosynthesized by bacteria, is an attractive biomaterial for bone regeneration due to its biocompatibility and good mechanical properties. However, BC is devoid of inorganic elements which are necessary for formation of chemical bonds with bone. Incorporation of inorganic phases such as hydroxyapatite (HA) into BC matrix may enhance bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to develop BC as a matrix for HA deposition. Absorption capacity is a key to incorporate calcium ion into BC and induces HA deposition. To enhance its absorption capacity, BC was modified using citric acid. The results showed that the incorporation of carboxylate groups into BC via reaction with citric acid improved its absorption capacity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the modified BC after soaking treatments showed HA deposition with diffractions attributed to low crystalline HA at 2θ = 11.7°; 26.2°; 29.4°; 32.0°; 33.0°; 34.2°; and 46.6°. Furthermore, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis showed that the average Ca/P ratio was 1.12. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Katrin Winarno E.,Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2012
Gamma irradiation has been used to preserve an herbal medicine, but it has not been known the effects of gamma irradiation on their bioactivity as an anticancer agent yet. In the previous study, the gamma irradiation on mahkota dewa bark with the optimum dose of 7.5 kGy could be used for decontamination of bacteria and fungus/yeast. In this report, the effect of gamma irradiation with the dose of 7.5 kGy on the bioactivities of mahkota dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff) Boerl.) bark against leukemia L1210 cells was studied. The control and irradiated samples were successively macerated with n-hexane and ethyl acetate. In the previous results, silica gel column chromatography of ethyl acetate extract of non irradiated sample (control) gave 8 fractions. Among these fractions, fraction 6 indicated the most cytotoxic-potential fraction, so that in this experiment, the ethyl acetate extract of irradiated and non irradiated sample were fractionated with the same manner as previous fractionation. The fraction 6 obtained both from control and irradiated samples were then assayed their inhibitory activities against 4 kinds of human cancer lines, i.e. HeLa, THP-1, HUT-78 and A-549. The results showed that the fraction 6 from control sample gave IC50 values of 3.65, 5.59, 3.55, and 4.06 μg/mL, against HeLa, THP-1, HUT-78 and A-549, respectively, meanwhile fraction 6 from irradiated sample gave IC50 values of 8.26, 7.02, 5.03, and 5.59 μg/mL, respectively. Gamma irradiation dose of 7.5 kGy on mahkota dewa bark could decreased the cytotoxic activity of fraction 6 as the most cytotoxic-potential fraction against HeLa, THP-1, HUT-78 and A-549 cancer cell lines, but decreasing the cytotoxic activity has not exceeded the limit of an extract and the fraction declared inactive. So that the irradiation dose of 7.5 kGy can be use for decontamination of bacteria and fungus/yeast without eliminating the cytotoxic activity.
Perkasa D.P.,Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology |
Erizal,Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology |
Darmawan,Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology |
Rasyid A.,Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013
The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical and thermal properties of fish gelatin films prepared from scales of Lates calcarifer. The films were irradiated by gamma rays at varied doses (0-50 kGy). The mechanical and thermal properties of irradiated gelatin films were measured by using colorimeter, Universal Testing Machine, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer. The results showed that increasing of irradiation dose up to 50 kGy, the color of irradiated film did not change significantly (p < 0.05). The tensile strength of irradiated film was increased with no differences among dose variation but there was no change on elongation at break value (p < 0.05). The DSC spectra of irradiated gelatin films showed that irradiation did not affect melting temperature (Tm). In contrast, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of irradiated film has slight tendency to increase with increasing of radiation doses. In general, the FTIR spectra confirmed that gamma irradiation up to 50 kGy affected the mechanical properties of gelatin films.