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San Michele, Italy

Obertegger U.,Research and Innovation Center | Agabiti B.,Center for Technology Transfer
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

Identification of Ameles species is a difficult task requiring much experience because of ambiguous descriptions with few drawings and great intraspecific morphological variability. Our objective was to find characteristics that could be reliably used for species identification and would be independent of experience. We identified 12 to 60 specimens of each of 5 target species, A. spallanzania (Rossi), A. decolor (Charpentier), A. africana Bolivar, A. picteti (Saussure), A. heldreichi Brunner and 1 to 4 specimens of 7 additional species, A. nana Charpentier, A. kervillei Bolivar, A. modesta Bolivar, A. maroccana Uvarov, A. dumonti Chopard, A. fasciipennis Kaltenbach and A. poggii Lombardo, from the Mediterranean area and based on traditional keys. For our analysis, we focused on ten morphological characteristics (lengths of body, pronotum, supracoxal dilatation, fore coxa, fore femur, fore tibia, tegmina, width of the head, minimum width of the pronotum, and maximum width of the fore femur) and five ratios (length to width of the frontal sclerite, pronotum, femur, subgenital plate, and hypophallus), analysed with non-metric multidimensional scaling and linear discriminant analysis. Fewer mis-assignments of species resulted when ratios were used instead of absolute measurements. Among the target species, A. decolor was seldom mis-assigned as another species; A. spallanzania was often mis-assigned as A. africana, while the opposite occurred less frequently; A. picteti was also frequently mis-assigned as A. heldreichi. For the target species, we devised an identification key based on ratios along with morphometric descriptions that appears to work well, because ratios are easily applicable and independent of specimen size. Furthermore, we confirm the synonymy of A. spallanzania and A. africana, recognize that Ameles nana is not a synonym of A. spallanzania, and find that A. poggii is more similar to A. spallanzania than to similar to A. picteti. Copyright © 2012 Magnolia Press.

Ioriatti C.,Center for Technology Transfer | Lucchi A.,University of Pisa
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2016

- This review summarizes work done in Italy in taking semiochemical-based management of orchard and vineyard pests from the research and development stage to successful commercial deployment. Mating disruption (MD) of codling moth Cydia pomonella (CM) was originally introduced into the Trentino-South Tyrol areas to address the development of CM resistance to insecticides, particularly insect growth regulators (IGRs), and to mitigate the conflict at the rural/urban interface related to the extensive use of insecticides. Although the mountainous terrain of the area was not optimal for the efficacy of MD, commitment and determination led to the rapid adoption of MD technology throughout the region. Grower cooperatives and their field consultants were strongly influential in convincing growers to accept MD technology. Public research institutions conducted extensive research and education, and provided credible assessments of various MD technologies. By 2016, the deployment of MD in effective area-wide strategies in apple (22,100 ha) and grapes (10,450 ha), has resulted in better control of tortricid moth pests and a substantial decrease in insecticide use. Collaboration between the research community and the pheromone industry has resulted in the development of increasingly effective single-species dispensers, as well as multi-species dispensers for the control of both target and secondary pests. Over the last 20 years, hand-applied reservoir dispensers have shown excellent efficacy in both apple and grapes. Recently, aerosol dispensing systems have been shown to be effective in apple orchards. Further research is needed on the efficacy of aerosols in vineyards before the technology can be widely adopted. The successful implementation of MD in apple and grape production in Trentino-South Tyrol is expediting adoption of the technology in other Italian fruit production regions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Maresi G.,Center for Technology Transfer | Oliveira Longa C.M.,Research and Innovation Center | Turchetti T.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience
IForest | Year: 2013

The quality and quantity of nut production are fundamental to the economic viability of chestnut cultivation, yet recent reports indicate that severe damage due to moulds represents a significant problem for growers. We carried out an investigation of the agents of chestnut rot and internal fruit damage in three orchards in Italy. Black and brown rot, as well as insect damage, were found in all the areas examined. Brown rot appeared to be the main cause of damage, affecting 8% to 49% and 2% to 24% of nuts collected from the ground and from burrs, respectively. With respect to morphology and DNA sequencing analyses, fungal isolates obtained from brown rot were homologous with Gnomoniopsis sp. obtained from Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Yasumatsu) galls and with Gnomoniopsis castanea and Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi described on chestnut in Italy and Australia, respectively. The same fungus was also isolated from the bark of one- and two-years-old healthy shoots at each site, supporting the endophytic behaviour of this rot agent. Brown rot symptoms on nuts associated with Gnomoniopsis sp. corresponded with those previously described by several authors and referred to as Phoma or Phomopsis endogena, suggesting a relationship between these fungi and Gnomoniopsis sp. It is to notice that the escalation of brown rot damage in Italy followed several periods of drought and probably the recent invasion of D. kuriphilus, both stress factors for chestnut trees. © iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry.

Zorer R.,Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Unit | Rocchini D.,Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Unit | Metz M.,Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Unit | Delucchi L.,Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Unit | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2013

Heat requirements for grapevine varieties have been widely used to characterize potential growing regions for viticulture. One of the most common landscape classifications is based on the Winkler Index (WI) values, defined as the total summation of daily average air temperature above 10°C from April 1 to October 31 in the Northern Hemisphere. Mapping WI is commonly performed by spatial interpolation of temperature data collected with weather station (WS) networks. However, in complex terrain such as the European Alps, these are usually irregularly and sparsely distributed or unavailable. This renders traditional geospatial interpolation approaches unreliable. As an alternative, thermal remote sensing data, which are intrinsically spatialized, can be used. The aims of this paper are the following: 1) to provide time series of WI-value maps from 2003 to 2010, by means of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (MOD11A1 and MYD11A1) daily data and 2) to calibrate them using ground truth data, collected by two WS networks, 3) leading to a classification of the study area into WI regions. WI values from WS data and from MODIS data exhibit a strong linear regression, close to the 1 : 1 prediction with an offset of 42.02 and a slope of 0.90. These coefficients have been used to calibrate the original map, before the following classification. The study area was found to have growing degree days that correspond to four Winkler Regions. The use of MODIS data represents a robust and straightforward method for selectively detecting areas suitable for grapevine varieties, particularly in regions with sparsely distributed WSs. © 1980-2012 IEEE.

Ioriatti C.,Center for Technology Transfer | Martini F.,Associazioni Produttori Ortofrutticoli Trentini | Kovach J.,Ohio State University
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management | Year: 2011

Various pesticide risk indicators have been developed for estimating pesticide impact on human health and the environment.The present work applied a pesticide risk indicator to estimate change in pesticide risk in apple production between 2001 and 2009. The "Environmental Impact Quotient" was used, which evaluates potential impacts of pesticide active ingredients on farm workers, consumers, and nontarget organisms. A modified Environmental Impact Quotient was also tested, which accounts for all ingredients in the formulation presenting a health or environmental hazard, as identified in the Security Data Sheet. Irrespective of the rating system applied, an overall average improvement in environmental impact of apple protection strategies was indicated ranging from 23 to 24%. Hazard reduction was more significant when estimated per treatment, and was higher for acaricides and insecticides than for fungicides. Improvement appeared to be a consequence of using more selective and more effective active ingredients, applying alternative pest control techniques, compulsory periodic sprayer calibration, and wider use of dwarfing orchards. The modified Environmental Impact Quotient does not overcome all limitations regarding accuracy of pesticide risk indicators, but its ease of use in relying on official, easily accessible data, and the consistency of its results, makes it a good candidate for monitoring the success of reduced risk policies. © 2011 SETAC.

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