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Bristol, United Kingdom

Affaticati P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Affaticati P.,University Paris - Sud | Mignen O.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Mignen O.,University Paris - Sud | And 20 more authors.
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2011

L-glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, also has a role in non-neuronal tissues and modulates immune responses. Whether NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signalling is involved in T-cell development is unknown. In this study, we show that mouse thymocytes expressed an array of glutamate receptors, including NMDARs subunits. Sustained calcium (Ca2+) signals and caspase-3 activation in thymocytes were induced by interaction with antigen-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) and were inhibited by NMDAR antagonists MK801 and memantine. NMDARs were transiently activated, triggered the sustained Ca2+ signal and were corecruited with the PDZ-domain adaptor postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 to thymocyte-DC contact zones. Although T-cell receptor (TCR) activation was sufficient for relocalization of NMDAR and PSD-95 at the contact zone, NMDAR could be activated only in a synaptic context. In these T-DC contacts, thymocyte activation occurred in the absence of exogenous glutamate, indicating that DCs could be a physiological source of glutamate. DCs expressed glutamate, glutamate-specific vesicular glutamate transporters and were capable of fast glutamate release through a Ca2+-dependent mechanism. We suggest that glutamate released by DCs could elicit focal responses through NMDAR-signalling in T cells undergoing apoptosis. Thus, synapses between T and DCs could provide a functional platform for coupling TCR activation and NMDAR signalling, which might reflect on T-cell development and modulation of the immune response. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source


Srivastava R.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Srivastava R.,University Paris Diderot | Srivastava R.,National Brain Research Center | Kumar M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 13 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2013

Directing differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to specific neuronal subtype is critical for modeling disease pathology in vitro. An attractive means of action would be to combine regulatory differentiation factors and extrinsic inductive signals added to the culture medium. In this study, we have generated mature cerebellar granule neurons by combining a temporally controlled transient expression of Math1, a master gene in granule neuron differentiation, with inductive extrinsic factors involved in cerebellar development. Using a Tetracyclin-On transactivation system, we overexpressed Math1 at various stages of ESCs differentiation and found that the yield of progenitors was considerably increased when Math1 was induced during embryonic body stage. Math1 triggered expression of Mbh1 and Mbh2, two target genes directly involved in granule neuron precursor formation and strong expression of early cerebellar territory markers En1 and NeuroD1. Three weeks after induction, we observed a decrease in the number of glial cells and an increase in that of neurons albeit still immature. Combining Math1 induction with extrinsic factors specifically increased the number of neurons that expressed Pde1c, Zic1, and GABAa6R characteristic of mature granule neurons, formed "T-shaped" axons typical of granule neurons, and generated synaptic contacts and action potentials in vitro. Finally, in vivo implantation of Math1-induced progenitors into young adult mice resulted in cell migration and settling of newly generated neurons in the cerebellum. These results show that conditional induction of Math1 drives ESCs toward the cerebellar fate and indicate that acting on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors is a powerful means to modulate ESCs differentiation and maturation into a specific neuronal lineage. © AlphaMed Press. Source


Titomanlio L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Titomanlio L.,University Paris Diderot | Bouslama M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bouslama M.,University Paris Diderot | And 19 more authors.
Stem Cells and Development | Year: 2011

Brain damage through excitotoxic mechanisms is a major cause of cerebral palsy in infants. This phenomenon usually occurs during the fetal period in human, and often leads to lifelong neurological morbidity with cognitive and sensorimotor impairment. However, there is currently no effective therapy. Significant recovery of brain function through neural stem cell implantation has been shown in several animal models of brain damage, but remains to be investigated in detail in neonates. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of cell therapy in a well-established neonatal mouse model of cerebral palsy induced by excitotoxicity (ibotenate treatment on postnatal day 5). Neurosphere-derived precursors or control cells (fibroblasts) were implanted into injured and control brains contralateral to the site of injury, and the fate of implanted cells was monitored by immunohistochemistry. Behavioral tests were performed in animals that received early (4 h after injury) or late (72 h after injury) cell implants. We show that neurosphere-derived precursors implanted into the injured brains of 5-day-old pups migrated to the lesion site, remained undifferentiated at day 10, and differentiated into oligodendrocyte and neurons at day 42. Although grafted cells finally die there few weeks later, this procedure triggered a reduction in lesion size and an improvement in memory performance compared with untreated animals, both 2 and 5 weeks after treatment. Although further studies are warranted, cell therapy could be a future therapeutic strategy for neonates with acute excitotoxic brain injury. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Csaba Z.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Csaba Z.,University Paris Diderot | Peineau S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Peineau S.,University Paris Diderot | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology | Year: 2012

The neuropeptide somatostatin (SRIF) is an important modulator of neurotransmission in the central nervous system and acts as a potent inhibitor of hormone and exocrine secretion. In addition, SRIF regulates cell proliferation in normal and tumorous tissues. The six somatostatin receptor subtypes (sst1, sst2A, sst2B, sst3, sst4, and sst5), which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, share a common molecular topology: a hydrophobic core of seven transmembrane-spanning α-helices, three intracellular loops, three extracellular loops, an amino-terminus outside the cell, and a carboxyl-terminus inside the cell. For most of the GPCRs, intracytosolic sequences, and more particularly the C-terminus, are believed to interact with proteins that are mandatory for either exporting neosynthesized receptor, anchoring receptor at the plasma membrane, internalization, recycling, or degradation after ligand binding. Accordingly, most of the SRIF receptors can traffic not only in vitro within different cell types but also in vivo. A picture of the pathways and proteins involved in these processes is beginning to emerge. © 2012 Society for Endocrinology. Source


Park P.,Seoul National University | Volianskis A.,Center for Synaptic Plasticity | Sanderson T.M.,Seoul National University | Bortolotto Z.A.,Center for Synaptic Plasticity | And 6 more authors.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) is extensively studied since it is believed to use the same molecular mechanisms that are required for many forms of learning and memory. Unfortunately, many controversies exist, not least the seemingly simple issue concerning the locus of expression of LTP. Here, we review our recent work and some of the extensive literature on this topic and present new data that collectively suggest that LTP can be explained, during its first few hours, by the coexistence of at least three mechanistically distinct processes that are all triggered by the synaptic activation of NMDARs. © 2013 The Authors. Source

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