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Duduta N.,Center for Sustainable Transport
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2013

Direct ridership models (DRM) have been introduced in the United States as an alternative to four-step travel demand modeling. DRMs can be used to obtain quick, order-of-magnitude estimates of transit patronage at a fraction of the cost of a full travel demand model and are more adept at capturing the effects of smart growth on transit ridership. The relatively low cost, flexible data requirements, and rapidity make these models particularly suited to developing world cities. Yet these cities still rely almost exclusively on full travel demand models to advise investments in new transit infrastructure. In doing so, cities often use old data and out-of-date household surveys and do not capture important recent changes in travel patterns. Mexico City, Mexico, is taken as a case study to illustrate the benefits of using DRM models in a developing world context. Ridership models are developed for the city's bus rapid transit and Metro networks to study how land use and service and station attributes affect ridership for each mode and also how connections between bus rapid transit and Metro affect each other's ridership. The two systems are complementary, each getting ridership benefits from connecting to the other. Implications of findings for transport policy in Mexico City are discussed, as well as some short-comings of DRM models, particularly their difficulty in accounting for informal transit. Source

Hidalgo D.,Center for Sustainable Transport | Diaz R.,CTS EMBARQ Mexico
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2014

Urban mobility is not merely a local concern. National governments in developing countries are increasingly investing in urban transport infrastructure. Although the body of knowledge on the topic is growing, further understanding and improvement are necessary. This paper contributes to the topic by providing an assessment and formulating recommendations for the Colombian national urban transport program. The program has increased the number of cities with mass transit from two to eight over the past 10 years. New bus systems, with a total length of 194 km of bus corridors, serve 2.5 million passengers per day. The policy supports smaller cities in transforming their public transport systems citywide. Projects have resulted in positive socioeconomic impacts through reductions in operational costs, travel times, air pollutant emissions, and traffic fatalities and injuries-with a socioeconomic internal rate of return of up to 45%. Two critical aspects for improvement are identified: (a) the competition between semiformal public transport and motorcycles and organized public transport and (b) the principle of self-sustainability of transit systems. Suggestions on policy responses, such as stronger focus on quality, subsidies-funded from transport demand management and land use value capture-and enhancement of institutional coordination and control, are presented. Lessons from Colombia are relevant to other emerging countries that arc considering and upgrading national urban mobility policies. Source

Duduta N.,Center for Sustainable Transport | Adriazola C.,Center for Sustainable Transport | Hidalgo D.,Center for Sustainable Transport | Lindau L.A.,EMBARQ Brazil | And 2 more authors.
Public Transport | Year: 2015

While there is a growing body of literature on transit safety, most studies on this topic tend to focus on a single type of transit system or on a single city. There is a need for a better understanding of safety issues across different transit modes and in different geographies in order to help inform city or transit agencies choosing between different transit system design options on the safety implications of their choices. We address this gap by reviewing the existing literature on transit safety for different bus and rail surface transit systems. We found that the main safety issues and common crash types depend more on the geometry of intersections and the corridor layout than on the type of technology used for transit vehicles (i.e. bus or rail) and that these issues are similar across different regions of the world. Furthermore, we found that there is a good understanding of the problems faced by transit systems, and a wide range of suggested countermeasures, but little evidence on the effectiveness of the different countermeasures in reducing target crashes. By taking an approach that cuts across different transit modes, we are also able to suggest solutions from one type of system that could be applicable to another. For example, we point out that Bus Rapid Transit agencies could learn from light rail operations about best practices in managing conflict points between transit vehicles. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Hidalgo D.,Center for Sustainable Transport | Pai M.,EMBARQ India | Carrigan A.,Center for Sustainable Transport | Bhatt A.,EMBARQ India
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2013

Between 2005 and 2012, India's Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM) invested US$20 billion in urban infrastructure and basic services for the urban poor. The transport program under JnNURM is an important advance, helping cities with policies and funding for moving people, not vehicles. Nevertheless, this program has not sufficiently shifted investment in the urban transport sector from road widening and road expansion to sustainable transport. Urban characteristics and transport needs of Indian cities derived from interviews with stakeholders and a literature review are presented. Key improvements for Indian urban transport policy are suggested: (a) reinforce the link between land use and transport to allow preservation of the built environment in existing cities and development of new accessible, dense, and mixed used developments in the fringes; (b) advance the preparation and implementation of comprehensive mobility plans, in close connection with master plans and JnNURM budget allocations; (c) introduce performance measurements of key transport indicators at the citywide level-people served, modal share, travel time, traffic fatalities, and transport tailpipe emissions; and (d) develop capacity-building programs for project planning and delivery at the city level and for evaluation and monitoring at the state and national levels. There is no claim that expansion is not needed, but it should not be the main priority of public investments in the transport sector. Recommendations for India may apply to other rapidly urbanizing and motorizing countries. Source

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