Time filter

Source Type

Cedar City, United States

Rasmussen S.A.,MS E 33 | Jamieson D.J.,Center for Surveillance | Jamieson D.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2015

From January 1 to April 3, 2015, 159 people from 18 states and the District of Columbia were reported as having measles. Most cases are part of an outbreak linked to a California amusement park. Because measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000, most U.S. clinicians are unfamiliar with the condition. We reviewed information on the current outbreak, measles manifestations, diagnostic methods, treatment, and infection-control recommendations. To identify information on measles and pregnancy, we reviewed reports with 20 or more measles cases during pregnancy that included data on effects on pregnant women or pregnancy outcomes. These reports were identified through MEDLINE from inception through February 2015 using the following strategy: (((pregnan) AND measles) AND English[Language]) NOT review[Publication Type]. Reference lists also were reviewed to identify additional articles. Pregnant women infected with measles are more likely to be hospitalized, develop pneumonia, and die than nonpregnant women. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss, preterm birth, and low birth weight, are associated with maternal measles; however, the risk of congenital defects does not appear to be increased. No antiviral therapy is available; treatment is supportive. Early identification of possible cases is needed so that appropriate infection control can be instituted promptly. The recent measles outbreak highlights the role that obstetric health care providers play in vaccine-preventable illnesses; obstetrician-gynecologists should ensure that patients are up to date on all vaccines, including measles-containing vaccines, and should recommend and ideally offer a measles-containing vaccine to women without evidence of measles immunity before or after pregnancy. © 2015 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Boulton M.L.,University of Michigan | Beck A.J.,University of Michigan | Coronado F.,Center for Surveillance | Merrill J.A.,Columbia University | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2014

Thoroughly characterizing and continuously monitoring the public health workforce is necessary for ensuring capacity to deliver public health services. A prerequisite for this is to develop a standardized methodology for classifying public health workers, permitting valid comparisons across agencies and over time, which does not exist for the public health workforce. An expert working group, all of whom are authors on this paper, was convened during 2012-2014 to develop a public health workforce taxonomy. The purpose of the taxonomy is to facilitate the systematic characterization of all public health workers while delineating a set of minimum data elements to be used in workforce surveys. The taxonomy will improve the comparability across surveys, assist with estimating duplicate counting of workers, provide a framework for describing the size and composition of the workforce, and address other challenges to workforce enumeration. The taxonomy consists of 12 axes, with each axis describing a key characteristic of public health workers. Within each axis are multiple categories, and sometimes subcategories, that further define that worker characteristic. The workforce taxonomy axes are occupation, workplace setting, employer, education, licensure, certification, job tasks, program area, public health specialization area, funding source, condition of employment, and demographics. The taxonomy is not intended to serve as a replacement for occupational classifications but rather is a tool for systematically categorizing worker characteristics. The taxonomy will continue to evolve as organizations implement it and recommend ways to improve this tool for more accurate workforce data collection. © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Beck A.J.,University of Michigan | Boulton M.L.,University of Michigan | Coronado F.,Center for Surveillance
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2014

Background Regular assessment of the size and composition of the U.S. public health workforce has been a challenge for decades. Previous enumeration efforts estimated 450,000 public health workers in governmental and voluntary agencies in 2000, and 326,602 governmental public health workers in 2012, although differences in enumeration methodology and the definitions of public health worker between the two make comparisons problematic.Purpose To estimate the size of the governmental public health workforce in 14 occupational classifications recommended for categorizing public health workers.Methods Six data sources were used to develop enumeration estimates: five for state and local public health workers and one for the federal public health workforce. Statistical adjustments were made to address missing data, overcounting, and duplicate counting of workers across surveys. Data were collected for 2010-2013; analyses were conducted in 2014.Results The multiple data sources yielded an estimate of 290,988 (range=231,464-341,053) public health workers in governmental agencies, 50%, 30%, and 20% of whom provide services in local, state, and federal public health settings, respectively. Administrative or clerical personnel (19%) represent the largest group of workers, followed by public health nurses (16%); environmental health workers (8%); public health managers (6%); and laboratory workers (5%).Conclusions Using multiple data sources for public health workforce enumeration potentially improves accuracy of estimates but also adds methodologic complexity. Improvement of data sources and development of a standardized study methodology is needed for continuous monitoring of public health workforce size and composition. © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Adekoya N.,Center for Surveillance | Truman B.I.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Ajani U.A.,Center for Surveillance
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice | Year: 2015

CONTEXT:: During 1994-1997, approximately 70% and 60% of the cases of conditions reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System included persons of known race and ethnicity, respectively. A major goal of the Healthy People 2020 initiative is to eliminate health disparities. OBJECTIVE:: To describe trends in the completeness of race and ethnicity in case reports of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System during 2006-2010. METHODS:: The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System is a public health surveillance system that aggregates case reports of infectious diseases and conditions that are designated nationally notifiable and are collected by US states and territories. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, Georgia) maintains this surveillance system in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. We used Cochran-Armitage Trend Test (SAS, version 9.2) to test the hypothesis that the percentage of case reports with the completeness of race and ethnicity data increased or decreased linearly during 2006-2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:: Completeness of race and ethnicity variables. RESULTS:: The 32 conditions reviewed included 1 030 804 case records. Seventy percent of records included a known value for race, and 49% of records included ethnicity during 2006-2010. During 2006-2010, race was known in 70% or more of records in 24 of 32 conditions and in 23 of 51 jurisdictions. During 2006-2010, the systemwide reporting of race remained at the same level of completeness (70%) but the reporting of ethnicity increased slightly from 48% in 2006 to 53% in 2010. In comparison with race, the proportions of records coded to ethnicity were less among all conditions. CONCLUSIONS:: Significant change has occurred in the completeness of reporting of ethnicity but not race during 2006-2010. However, the reporting of ethnicity still lags substantially behind the reporting of race. Jurisdictions that identify conditions with lower rates of completeness of race and ethnicity can assess the net benefits of efforts to improve the completeness of race and ethnicity data.

McNamara L.A.,Center for Surveillance | McNamara L.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Shumate A.M.,Center for Surveillance | Johnsen P.,Princeton University | And 20 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: In 2013-2014, an outbreak of serogroup B meningococcal disease occurred among persons linked to a New Jersey university (University A). In the absence of a licensed serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine in the United States, the Food and Drug Administration authorized use of an investigational MenB vaccine to control the outbreak. An investigation of the outbreak and response was undertaken to determine the population at risk and assess vaccination coverage. METHODS: The epidemiologic investigation relied on compilation and review of case and population data, laboratory typing of meningococcal isolates, and unstructured interviews with university staff. Vaccination coverage data were collected during the vaccination campaign held under an expanded-access Investigational New Drug protocol. RESULTS: Between March 25, 2013, and March 10, 2014, 9 cases of serogroup B meningococcal disease occurred in persons linked to University A. Laboratory typing results were identical for all 8 isolates available. Through May 14, 2014, 89.1% coverage with the 2-dose vaccination series was achieved in the target population. From the initiation of MenB vaccination through February 1, 2015, no additional cases of serogroup B meningococcal disease occurred in University A students. However, the ninth case occurred in March 2014 in an unvaccinated close contact of University A students. CONCLUSIONS: No serogroup B meningococcal disease cases occurred in persons who received 1 or more doses of 4CMenB vaccine, suggesting 4CMenB may have protected vaccinated individuals from disease. However, the ninth case demonstrates that carriage of serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis among vaccinated persons was not eliminated. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Discover hidden collaborations