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Aldy J.E.,Center for Strategic and International Studies
Climatic Change | Year: 2015

Inadequate policy surveillance has undermined the effectiveness of multilateral climate agreements. To illustrate an alternative approach to transparency, I evaluate policy surveillance under the 2009 G-20 fossil fuel subsidies agreement. The Leaders of the Group of 20 nations tasked their energy and finance ministers to identify and phase-out fossil fuel subsidies. The G-20 leaders agreed to submit their subsidy reform strategies to peer review and to independent expert review conducted by international organizations. This process of developed and developing countries pledging to pursue the same policy objective, designing and publicizing implementation plans, and subjecting plans and performance to review by international organizations differs considerably from the historic approach under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. This paper draws lessons from the fossil fuel subsidies agreement for climate policy surveillance. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Lewis J.,Center for Strategic and International Studies
IEEE Security and Privacy | Year: 2011

Network technology use and cyberspace exploitation for intelligence and attack have become a normal part of military activity. Questions persist as to the appropriate framework for considering this new mode of conflict, but to a degree, these questions result from weak data, imprecise terminology, and a certain reluctance to abandon the notion that cyberconflict is unique, rather than just another mode of attack. This article reviews cyberattack in armed conflicts, thresholds for considering cyberexploits as the use of force, existing armed conflict laws' applicability to cyberattack, and the political implications of cyberexploits' strategic versus tactical applications. © 2011 IEEE.

Pantucci R.,Center for Strategic and International Studies
Studies in Conflict and Terrorism | Year: 2010

Omar Bakri Mohammed (the Tottenham Ayatollah) and Abu Hamza al-Masri (the hook-handed cleric) are two of the more infamous figures to emerge from what critics called "Londonistan." However, they should be remembered not only for their rhetoric and appearance, but also for the fact that their respective organizations, Bakri's Al Muhajiroun, and Hamza's Supporters of Shariah based at the Finsbury Park Mosque, have been the connective thread through most Islamist terrorist plots that have emanated from the United Kingdom. This article maps out the network of terrorist plots in the United Kingdom and abroad that appears to have emanated from the networks around these two men with a viewto understanding better how the connections remained unclear for so long and how understanding of the networks evolved over time. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Laksmana E.A.,Center for Strategic and International Studies
Journal of the Indian Ocean Region | Year: 2011

This paper seeks to describe and assess the geopolitical architecture of Indonesia as the largest archipelagic state in the world. It makes two main inter-related arguments. First, Indonesia's geographical traits suggest that it could be both a source of weakness and vulnerability as much as it brings enormous potential for political, economic, and even military power. Second, the historical origins and conceptual foundations of 'geopolitics' as a policy theme suggest that Indonesia's geopolitical architecture is based on three building blocks - the 'strategic trinity': geostrategy (the military and security dimensions), geoeconomics (the resource and economic dimensions), and geopolitics (the social and political dimensions). While these arguments are not novel in themselves, this paper represents among the first attempts to systematically analyse and assess Indonesia's geographical traits and how they shape the country's strategic thinking, foreign policy, and national security system. The paper will also consider how Indonesia's geopolitical architecture could help explain the country's resurgent interest in the Indian Ocean Region in recent years. © 2011 Indian Ocean Research Group.

News Article | April 18, 2016
Site: www.ogj.com

South America’s two largest oil producing nations face bigger threats from political turmoil than depressed crude prices, but reforms in their national oil companies (NOC) and energy ministries may be essential for their governments to survive, speakers suggested at an Apr. 12 discussion at the Center for Strategic and International Studies.

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