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Lin H.T.,Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2013

In recent times, the epigenetic study of pluripotency based on cellular reprogramming techniques led to the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells. It has come to represent the forefront of a new wave of alternative therapeutic approaches in the field of stem cell therapy. Progress in drug development has saved countless lives, but there are numerous intractable diseases where curative treatment cannot be achieved through pharmacological intervention alone. Consequently, there has been an unfortunate rise in incidences of organ failures, degenerative disorders and cancers, hence novel therapeutic interventions are required. Stem cells have unique self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capabilities that could be harnessed for therapeutic purposes. Although a number of mature differentiated cells have been characterized in vitro, few have been demonstrated to function in a physiologically relevant context. Despite fervent levels of enthusiasm in the field, the reality is that other than the employment of haematopoietic stem cells, many other therapies have yet to be thoroughly proven for their therapeutic benefit and safety in application. This review shall focus on a discussion regarding the current status of stem cell therapy, the issues surrounding it and its future prospects with a general background on the regulatory networks underlying pluripotency. Source


Otsu M.,Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine
Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) represents a group of inherited diseases where mutations in certain gene lead to certain levels of defects in patient immune systems. Among them, several types of PID, including severe combined immunodeficiecny (SCID), warrented development of new types of curative treatment other than allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, eventually culiminating in successful stem cell gene therapy tials such as the cases for adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficiency SCID patients. In this article, I will summarize the current status of stem cell gene therapy for PID, and discuss the problems such clinical trials have in the present forms of treatment, e.g., possible risks of leukemogenesis due to insertional mutagenesis by the use of therapeutic viral vectors. I also try to discuss the future of this type of experimental medicine aiming for the permanent cure of PID, including the one utilizing innovative technologies such as induced pluripotent stem cells. © 2010 The Japan Society for Clinical Immunology. Source


Lin H.-T.,Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine | Otsu M.,Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine | Nakauchi H.,Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

In recent times, the epigenetic study of pluripotency based on cellular reprogramming techniques led to the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells. It has come to represent the forefront of a new wave of alternative therapeutic approaches in the field of stem cell therapy. Progress in drug development has saved countless lives, but there are numerous intractable diseases where curative treatment cannot be achieved through pharmacological intervention alone. Consequently, there has been an unfortunate rise in incidences of organ failures, degenerative disorders and cancers, hence novel therapeutic interventions are required. Stem cells have unique selfrenewal and multilineage differentiation capabilities that could be harnessed for therapeutic purposes. Although a number of mature differentiated cells have been characterized in vitro, few have been demonstrated to function in a physiologically relevant context. Despite fervent levels of enthusiasm in the field, the reality is that other than the employment of haematopoietic stem cells, many other therapies have yet to be thoroughly proven for their therapeutic benefit and safety in application. This review shall focus on a discussion regarding the current status of stem cell therapy, the issues surrounding it and its future prospects with a general background on the regulatory networks underlying pluripotency. © 2012 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source


Sato A.,University of Tokyo | Nishida C.,University of Tokyo | Sato-Kusubata K.,University of Tokyo | Ishihara M.,University of Tokyo | And 15 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2015

The systemic inflammatory response observed during acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is driven by proinflammatory cytokines, a 'cytokine storm'. The function of plasmin in regulating the inflammatory response is not fully understood, and its role in the development of aGVHD remains unresolved. Here we show that plasmin is activated during the early phase of aGVHD in mice, and its activation correlated with aGVHD severity in humans. Pharmacological plasmin inhibition protected against aGVHD-associated lethality in mice. Mechanistically, plasmin inhibition impaired the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the release of membrane-associated proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) and Fas-ligand directly, or indirectly via matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and alters monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) signaling. We propose that plasmin and potentially MMP-9 inhibition offers a novel therapeutic strategy to control the deadly cytokine storm in patients with aGVHD, thereby preventing tissue destruction. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

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