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Kentford, United Kingdom

Furtado A.R.R.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Caine A.,Dick White Referrals | Herrtage M.E.,University of Cambridge
Journal of Small Animal Practice

OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of low-field magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating sino-nasal aspergillosis from lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis in dogs. METHODS: A retrospective study of 41 dogs (25 with lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis and 16 with sino-nasalaspergillosis) that underwent magnetic resonance imaging scan of the nasal cavity was conducted. On magnetic resonance imaging, turbinate destruction was classified as mild, moderate or severe. The cribriform plate and vomer destruction were classified as present or absent. Theintensity of fluid accumulation and turbinates was classified on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images as hypointense, hyperintense and isointense based on the brightest area on the same slice. RESULTS: Turbinate destruction was significantly (P=0·005) associated with sino-nasal aspergillosis. On T1-weighted images, sino-nasal aspergillosis was associated with turbinate hyperintensity, while lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis was significantly (P=0·007) associated with hypointensity. On T2-weighted images, this feature was shown not to be relevant. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study has demonstrated that turbinate destruction is the most reliable feature to differentiate sino-nasal aspergillosis from lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis and that T1-weighted image was the most useful sequence. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association. Source

Forman O.P.,Kennel Club Genetics Center | De Risio L.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Mellersh C.S.,Kennel Club Genetics Center

Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) in the Parson Russell Terrier (PRT) dog breed is a disease of progressive incoordination of gait and loss of balance. Clinical signs usually become notable between 6 and 12 months of age with affected dogs presenting with symmetric spinocerebellar ataxia particularly evident in the pelvic limbs. The degree of truncal ataxia, pelvic limb hypermetria and impaired balance is progressive, particularly during the initial months of disease. A certain degree of stabilisation as well as intermittent worsening may occur. At the later stages of the disease ambulation often becomes difficult, with owners often electing to euthanise affected dogs on welfare grounds. Using a GWAS approach and target-enriched massively-parallel sequencing, a strongly associated non-synonymous SNP in the CAPN1 gene, encoding the calcium dependent cysteine protease calpain1 (mu-calpain), was identified. The SNP is a missense mutation causing a cysteine to tyrosine substitution at residue 115 of the CAPN1 protein. Cysteine 115 is a highly conserved residue and forms a key part of a catalytic triad of amino acids that are crucial to the enzymatic activity of cysteine proteases. The CAPN1 gene shows high levels of expression in the brain and nervous system and roles for the protein in both neuronal necrosis and maintenance have been suggested. Given the functional implications and high level of conservation observed across species, the CAPN1 variant represents a provocative candidate for the cause of SCA in the PRT and a novel potential cause of ataxia in humans. © 2013 Forman et al. Source

Freeman A.C.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Platt S.R.,University of Georgia | Kent M.,University of Georgia | Huguet E.,University of Georgia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

Background: Although Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) have been described in many small breed dogs, the prevalence and clinical manifestations of this complex have not been documented in a large cohort of American Brussels Griffon (ABG) dogs. Objectives: To characterize the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of CM and SM in the ABG breed. Animals: Eighty-four American Kennel Club registered ABG dogs were recruited. Methods: Prospective study. Complete histories and neurologic examinations were obtained before MRI. Images were blindly reviewed and calculations were made by using OsiriX. All analyses were performed by Student's t-test, Spearman's correlation, ANOVA, and chi-square test where appropriate. Results: Chiari-like malformation and SM were present in 65% and 52% of dogs, respectively. Twenty-eight percent of dogs had neurologic deficits and 20% had neck pain. Mean central canal (CC) transverse height was 2.5 mm with a mean length of 3.6 cervical vertebrae. Neurologic deficits were significantly associated with a larger syrinx (P = .04, P = .08) and syrinx size increased with age (P = .027). SM was associated with a smaller craniocervical junction (CCJ) height (P = .04) and larger ventricles (P = .0001; P < .001). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Syringomyelia and CM are prevalent in American Brussels Griffon dogs. Syrinx size is associated with neurologic deficits, CM, larger ventricles, a smaller craniocervical junction height, neurologic deficits, and cerebellar herniation. Fifty-two percent of dogs with a SM were clinically normal. © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Source

Renwick A.I.C.,Willows Referral Service | Dennis R.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Gemmill T.J.,Willows Referral Service
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology

This report describes a case of lumbosacral discospondylitis in a two-year-old boxer dog. The dog had been presented with chronic hindlimb lameness and signs of lumbar spinal pain. The diagnosis was confirmed with a magnetic resonance imaging scan and positive blood culture. Following unsuccessful conservative management, the dog was treated with surgical stabilisation using screws and polymethylmethacrylate, and implantation of a gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge into the L7-S1 disc space. This technique has not previously been described. The dog had a successful long-term outcome with complete resolution of clinical signs. © Schattauer 2010. Source

Beltran E.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Platt S.R.,University of Georgia | Mcconnell J.F.,University of Liverpool | Dennis R.,Center for Small Animal Studies | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

Background: The prognostic value of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in dogs after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unclear. Objectives: Determine whether MRI findings are associated with prognosis after TBI in dogs. Animals: Fifty client-owned dogs. Methods: Retrospective study of dogs with TBI that underwent 1.5T MRI within 14 days after head trauma. MRI evaluators were blinded to the clinical presentation, and all images were scored based on an MRI grading system (Grade I [normal brain parenchyma] to Grade VI [bilateral lesions affecting the brainstem with or without any lesions of lesser grade]). Skull fractures, percentage of intraparenchymal lesions, degree of midline shift, and type of brain herniation were evaluated. MGCS was assessed at presentation. The presence of seizures was recorded. Outcome was assessed at 48 h (alive or dead) and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after TBI. Results: Sixty-six percent of the dogs had abnormal MRI findings. MRI grade was negatively correlated (P < .001) with MGCS. A significant negative correlation of MRI grade, degree of midline shift, and percentage of intraparenchymal lesions with follow-up scores was identified. The MGCS was lower in dogs with brain herniation (P = .0191). Follow-up scores were significantly lower in dogs that had brain herniation or skull fractures. The possibility of having seizures was associated with higher percentage of intraparenchymal lesions (P = 0.0054) and 10% developed PTE. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Significant associations exist between MRI findings and prognosis in dogs with TBI. © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Source

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