Center for Small Animal Studies

Newmarket, United Kingdom

Center for Small Animal Studies

Newmarket, United Kingdom
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Freeman A.C.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Platt S.R.,University of Georgia | Kent M.,University of Georgia | Huguet E.,University of Georgia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Although Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) have been described in many small breed dogs, the prevalence and clinical manifestations of this complex have not been documented in a large cohort of American Brussels Griffon (ABG) dogs. Objectives: To characterize the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of CM and SM in the ABG breed. Animals: Eighty-four American Kennel Club registered ABG dogs were recruited. Methods: Prospective study. Complete histories and neurologic examinations were obtained before MRI. Images were blindly reviewed and calculations were made by using OsiriX. All analyses were performed by Student's t-test, Spearman's correlation, ANOVA, and chi-square test where appropriate. Results: Chiari-like malformation and SM were present in 65% and 52% of dogs, respectively. Twenty-eight percent of dogs had neurologic deficits and 20% had neck pain. Mean central canal (CC) transverse height was 2.5 mm with a mean length of 3.6 cervical vertebrae. Neurologic deficits were significantly associated with a larger syrinx (P = .04, P = .08) and syrinx size increased with age (P = .027). SM was associated with a smaller craniocervical junction (CCJ) height (P = .04) and larger ventricles (P = .0001; P < .001). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Syringomyelia and CM are prevalent in American Brussels Griffon dogs. Syrinx size is associated with neurologic deficits, CM, larger ventricles, a smaller craniocervical junction height, neurologic deficits, and cerebellar herniation. Fifty-two percent of dogs with a SM were clinically normal. © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.


Forman O.P.,Kennel Club Genetics Center | De Risio L.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Mellersh C.S.,Kennel Club Genetics Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) in the Parson Russell Terrier (PRT) dog breed is a disease of progressive incoordination of gait and loss of balance. Clinical signs usually become notable between 6 and 12 months of age with affected dogs presenting with symmetric spinocerebellar ataxia particularly evident in the pelvic limbs. The degree of truncal ataxia, pelvic limb hypermetria and impaired balance is progressive, particularly during the initial months of disease. A certain degree of stabilisation as well as intermittent worsening may occur. At the later stages of the disease ambulation often becomes difficult, with owners often electing to euthanise affected dogs on welfare grounds. Using a GWAS approach and target-enriched massively-parallel sequencing, a strongly associated non-synonymous SNP in the CAPN1 gene, encoding the calcium dependent cysteine protease calpain1 (mu-calpain), was identified. The SNP is a missense mutation causing a cysteine to tyrosine substitution at residue 115 of the CAPN1 protein. Cysteine 115 is a highly conserved residue and forms a key part of a catalytic triad of amino acids that are crucial to the enzymatic activity of cysteine proteases. The CAPN1 gene shows high levels of expression in the brain and nervous system and roles for the protein in both neuronal necrosis and maintenance have been suggested. Given the functional implications and high level of conservation observed across species, the CAPN1 variant represents a provocative candidate for the cause of SCA in the PRT and a novel potential cause of ataxia in humans. © 2013 Forman et al.


PubMed | Center for Small Animal Studies and Euram Ltd
Type: | Journal: The Veterinary record | Year: 2017

Estimated prevalence of canine idiopathic epilepsy is 0.6 per cent in the first-opinion canine population in the UK. Phenobarbital monotherapy has been reported to reduce/eradicate seizure activity in 60-93 per cent of idiopathic epileptic dogs (IEDs). The objective of this study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of the administration of phenobarbital orally every eight hours in IEDs with phenobarbital elimination half-life less than 20hours. Medical records of 10 IEDs in which steady state trough serum phenobarbital levels were within the reference range and phenobarbital elimination half-life had become less than 20hours following prolonged administration every 12hours were reviewed. Side effects and seizure frequency when phenobarbital was administered every 12 hours or 8hours were compared. In all dogs the side effects of the antiepileptic medication treatment improved. When phenobarbital was administered every eight hours, 9/10 dogs experienced improvement in seizure frequency and 8/10 dogs maintained seizure freedom for a period three times longer than the longest interictal interval period previously recorded. Reduction in the severity and number of clusters of seizures was recorded in one of the remaining two dogs. The administration of phenobarbital orally every eight hours in IEDs with decreased phenobarbital elimination half-life appears safe and can improve seizure management. The results of this study were presented in abstract form (poster) for the 28th symposium of the European Society of Veterinary Neurology - European College of Veterinary Neurology (ESVN), September 18-19, 2015, Amsterdam, Netherlands.


Furtado A.R.R.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Caine A.,Dick White Referrals | Herrtage M.E.,University of Cambridge
Journal of Small Animal Practice | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of low-field magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating sino-nasal aspergillosis from lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis in dogs. METHODS: A retrospective study of 41 dogs (25 with lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis and 16 with sino-nasalaspergillosis) that underwent magnetic resonance imaging scan of the nasal cavity was conducted. On magnetic resonance imaging, turbinate destruction was classified as mild, moderate or severe. The cribriform plate and vomer destruction were classified as present or absent. Theintensity of fluid accumulation and turbinates was classified on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images as hypointense, hyperintense and isointense based on the brightest area on the same slice. RESULTS: Turbinate destruction was significantly (P=0·005) associated with sino-nasal aspergillosis. On T1-weighted images, sino-nasal aspergillosis was associated with turbinate hyperintensity, while lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis was significantly (P=0·007) associated with hypointensity. On T2-weighted images, this feature was shown not to be relevant. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study has demonstrated that turbinate destruction is the most reliable feature to differentiate sino-nasal aspergillosis from lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis and that T1-weighted image was the most useful sequence. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.


Beltran E.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Platt S.R.,University of Georgia | Mcconnell J.F.,University of Liverpool | Dennis R.,Center for Small Animal Studies | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: The prognostic value of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in dogs after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unclear. Objectives: Determine whether MRI findings are associated with prognosis after TBI in dogs. Animals: Fifty client-owned dogs. Methods: Retrospective study of dogs with TBI that underwent 1.5T MRI within 14 days after head trauma. MRI evaluators were blinded to the clinical presentation, and all images were scored based on an MRI grading system (Grade I [normal brain parenchyma] to Grade VI [bilateral lesions affecting the brainstem with or without any lesions of lesser grade]). Skull fractures, percentage of intraparenchymal lesions, degree of midline shift, and type of brain herniation were evaluated. MGCS was assessed at presentation. The presence of seizures was recorded. Outcome was assessed at 48 h (alive or dead) and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after TBI. Results: Sixty-six percent of the dogs had abnormal MRI findings. MRI grade was negatively correlated (P < .001) with MGCS. A significant negative correlation of MRI grade, degree of midline shift, and percentage of intraparenchymal lesions with follow-up scores was identified. The MGCS was lower in dogs with brain herniation (P = .0191). Follow-up scores were significantly lower in dogs that had brain herniation or skull fractures. The possibility of having seizures was associated with higher percentage of intraparenchymal lesions (P = 0.0054) and 10% developed PTE. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Significant associations exist between MRI findings and prognosis in dogs with TBI. © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.


Theobald A.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Dennis R.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Beltran E.,Center for Small Animal Studies
Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound | Year: 2014

A 4-year-old, spayed female greyhound dog was presented with an acute onset of paraplegia. There was no known history of trauma or coagulopathy. Spinal cord compression was identified on MRI. Intra-operative evaluation revealed the presence of a large subperiosteal hematoma and a smaller epidural hematoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a spinal subperiosteal hematoma diagnosed antemortem through MRI, with surgical exploration and successful treatment in a dog. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.


Sansom J.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Blunden T.,Center for Small Animal Studies
Veterinary Ophthalmology | Year: 2010

The purpose of this paper is to describe a specific presentation of canine corneal calcification. Fourteen cases are described. In seven cases the corneal lesions were bilaterally symmetrical. In five cases the corneal lesion was unilateral. Two dogs were uniocular, the contralateral eye had been enucleated between 1 and 3 months previously by the referring veterinary surgeon following corneal ulceration and perforation. Of a total of 21 eyes with corneal calcification, 16 eyes had associated ulceration. The ulceration presented as follows: two eyes had descemetocoeles, four eyes had corneal perforations, eight eyes had stromal ulceration, and two eyes had superficial punctate ulceration. The cause of the corneal mineralization remains undetermined but underlying systemic disease, particularly hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's Syndrome), is suspected as a possible contributing factor in some of these cases. Histopathology was carried out on three cases following a keratectomy and placement of a conjunctival pedicle flap into the ulcerated lesion. © 2010 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.


Renwick A.I.C.,Willows Referral Service | Dennis R.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Gemmill T.J.,Willows Referral Service
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2010

This report describes a case of lumbosacral discospondylitis in a two-year-old boxer dog. The dog had been presented with chronic hindlimb lameness and signs of lumbar spinal pain. The diagnosis was confirmed with a magnetic resonance imaging scan and positive blood culture. Following unsuccessful conservative management, the dog was treated with surgical stabilisation using screws and polymethylmethacrylate, and implantation of a gentamicin-impregnated collagen sponge into the L7-S1 disc space. This technique has not previously been described. The dog had a successful long-term outcome with complete resolution of clinical signs. © Schattauer 2010.


De Risio L.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Newton R.,Animal Health Trust | Freeman J.,Center for Small Animal Studies | Shea A.,Center for Small Animal Studies
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: There is lack of data on idiopathic epilepsy (IE) in the Italian Spinone (IS). Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of IE in the IS in the United Kingdom (UK) and to investigate predictors of survival and seizure remission. Animals: The target population consisted of 3331 IS born between 2000 and 2011 and registered with the UK Kennel Club (KC). The owners of 1192 dogs returned phase I questionnaire. Sixty-three IS had IE. Methods: Population survey. The owners of all UK KC-registered IS were invited to complete the phase I questionnaire. Information from the phase I questionnaire and veterinary medical records was used to identify IS with IE and obtain data on treatment and survival. Additional information was obtained from owners of epileptic IS who completed the phase II questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of IE in the IS in the UK was estimated as 5.3% (95% CI, 4.03-6.57%). Survival time was significantly shorter in IS euthanized because of poorly controlled IE compared with epileptic IS that died of unrelated disorders (P = 0.001). Survival was significantly longer in IS with no cluster seizures (CS) (P = 0.040) and in IS in which antiepileptic medication was initiated after the second seizure rather than after ≥3 seizures (P = 0.044). Seizure remission occurred only in 3 IS. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: The prevalence of IE in IS (5.3%) is higher than in dogs (0.6%) in the UK. Idiopathic epilepsy in IS has a severe phenotype. Antiepileptic medication initiation after the second seizure and aggressive treatment of CS may improve survival. © 2015 The Authors.


PubMed | Center for Small Animal Studies
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary record open | Year: 2016

The carers of all UK Kennel Club registered Italian spinoni (IS) born between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011 were invited to participate in the study. The carers of 47 of 63 IS diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) returned the questionnaire, which included numerous questions on various aspects of IE including the effect of IE on the dogs carers quality of life. Median epileptic seizure number in the three months before study end or death was five epileptic seizures, 72 per cent of dogs had cluster seizures, 94 per cent of dogs were administered one or more antiepileptic medications and 36 per cent of dogs were euthanased due to poorly controlled IE. Seventy-one per cent and 65 per cent of the participants were moderately to extremely worried about the frequency and severity of their dogs epileptic seizures, respectively. Caring for an IS with IE caused conflict with the carers work, education or daily activity often or very often in 50 per cent of the participants. Overall the limitations on the carers life due to caring for an IS with IE were considered as very to extremely bothersome in 29 per cent of the participants, a little to moderately bothersome in 40 per cent of the participants and not at all bothersome in 31 per cent of the participants.

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