East Cleveland, OH, United States
East Cleveland, OH, United States

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Netzer N.,University of Ulm | Netzer N.,Paracelsus Medical University | Strohl K.,Case Western Reserve University | Strohl K.,Center for Sleep Disorders Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Travel Medicine | Year: 2013

Background Millions of tourists and climbers visit high altitudes annually. Many unsuspecting and otherwise healthy individuals may get sick when sojourning to these high regions. Acute mountain sickness represents the most common illness, which is usually benign but can rapidly progress to the more severe and potentially fatal forms of high-altitude cerebral edema and high-altitude pulmonary edema. Methods Data were identified by searches of Medline (1965 to May 2012) and references from relevant articles and books. Studies, reviews, and books specifically pertaining to the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of high-altitude illnesses in travelers were selected. Results This review provides information on geographical aspects, physiology/pathophysiology, clinical features, risk factors, and the prevalence of high-altitude illnesses and also state-of-the art recommendations for prevention and treatment of such illnesses. Conclusion Given an increasing number of recreational activities at high and extreme altitudes, the general practitioner and specialist are in higher demand for medical recommendations regarding the prevention and treatment of altitude illness. Despite an ongoing scientific discussion and controversies about the pathophysiological causes of altitude illness, treatment and prevention recommendations are clearer with increased experience over the last two decades. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

Moore M.W.,Center for Sleep Disorders Research | Chai S.,Case Western Reserve University | Chai S.,Center for Sleep Disorders Research | Gillombardo C.B.,Case Western Reserve University | And 7 more authors.
Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology | Year: 2012

The purpose was to determine if 2 weeks of buspirone suppressed post-hypoxic breathing instability and pauses in the C57BL/6J (B6) mouse. Study groups were vehicle (saline, n=8), low-dose (1.5mg/kg, n=8), and high-dose buspirone (5.0mg/kg, n=8). Frequency, measured by plethysmography, was the major metric, and a pause defined by breathing cessation >2.5 times the average frequency. Mice were tested after 16 days of ip injections of vehicle or drug. On day 17, 4 mice in each group were tested after buspirone and the 5-HT 1A receptor antagonist, 4-iodo-N-{2-[4-(methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl] ethyl}-N-2-pyridinyl-benzamide (p-MPPI, 5mg/kg). A post-hypoxic pause was present in 6/8 animals given vehicle and 1/16 animals given buspirone at either dose, but always present (8/8) with p-MPPI, regardless of buspirone dose. Post-hypoxic frequency decline was blunted by buspirone (-10% vehicle vs. -5% at both doses) and restored by p-MPPI; ventilatory stability as described by the coefficient of variation which was reduced by buspirone (p<0.04) was increased by p-MPPI (0.01). In conclusion, buspirone administration after 2 weeks acts through the 5-HT 1A receptor to reduce post-hypoxic ventilatory instability in the B6 strain. © 2012 .

Donovan L.,Case Western Reserve University | Welford S.M.,Case Western Reserve University | Haaga J.,Case Western Reserve University | LaManna J.,Case Western Reserve University | And 2 more authors.
Sleep and Breathing | Year: 2010

Cells sense oxygen availability using not only the absolute value for cellular oxygen in regard to its energetic and metabolic functions, but also the gradient from the cell surface to the lowest levels in the mitochondria. Signals are used for regulatory purposes locally as well as in the generation of cellular, tissue, and humoral remodeling. Lowered oxygen availability (hypoxia) is theoretically important in the consideration of pharmacology because (1) hypoxia can alter cellular function and thereby the therapeutic effectiveness of the agent, (2) therapeutic agents may potentiate or protect against hypoxia-induced pathology, (3) hypoxic conditions may potentiate or mitigate drug-induced toxicity, (4) hypoxia may alter drug metabolism and thereby therapeutic effectiveness, and (5) therapeutic agents might alter the relative coupling of blood flow and energy metabolism in an organ. The prototypic biochemical effect of hypoxia is related to its known role as a cofactor in a number of enzymatic reactions, e.g., oxidases and oxygenases, which are affected independently from the bioenergetic effect of low oxygen on energetic functions. The cytochrome P-450 family of enzymes is another example. Here, there is a direct effect of oxygen availability on the conformation of the enzyme, thereby altering the metabolism of drug substrates. Indirectly, the NADH/NAD+ ratio is increased with 10% inspired oxygen, leading not only to reduced oxidation of ethanol but also to reduction of azo- and nitro-compounds to amines and disulfides to sulfhydryls. With chronic hypoxia, many of these processes are reversed, suggesting that hypoxia induces the drug-metabolizing systems. Support for this comes from observations that hypoxia can induce the hypoxic inducible factors which in turn alters transcription and function of some but not all cytochrome P-450 isoforms. Hypoxia is identified as a cofactor in cancer expression and metastatic potential. Thus, the effects of hypoxia play an important role in pharmacology, and the signaling pathways that are affected by hypoxia could become new targets for novel therapy or avenues for prevention. © US Government 2010.

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