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Grandner M.A.,Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology | Hale L.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Moore M.,Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology | Moore M.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | And 2 more authors.
Sleep Medicine Reviews | Year: 2010

This review of the scientific literature examines the widely observed relationship between sleep duration and mortality. As early as 1964, data have shown that 7-h sleepers experience the lowest risks for all-cause mortality, whereas those at the shortest and longest sleep durations have significantly higher mortality risks. Numerous follow-up studies from around the world (e.g., Japan, Israel, Sweden, Finland, the United Kingdom) show similar relationships. We discuss possible mechanisms, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, physiologic stress, immunity, and socioeconomic status. We put forth a social-ecological framework to explore five possible pathways for the relationship between sleep duration and mortality, and we conclude with a four-point agenda for future research. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Izci-Balserak B.,Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology | Pien G.W.,Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology | Pien G.W.,University of Pennsylvania
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2010

Purpose of Review: This article reviews current data on pathophysiologic mechanisms by which sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy may cause harm, and explores biological pathways for associated adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, especially pregnancy-induced hypertension and gestational diabetes. Recent Findings: Accumulating data indicate that snoring and sleep apnea during pregnancy are likely to increase the risk for gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Several new studies have observed that sleep-disordered breathing and short sleep duration also increase the risk of gestational diabetes, similar to observations in the general population. There are varying levels of emerging evidence for potential mechanisms, including oxidative stress, increased sympathetic activity and inflammation, adipokine levels and insulin resistance, linking sleep-disordered breathing events during pregnancy to adverse outcomes. Summary: Sleep-disordered breathing and adverse maternal-fetal outcomes such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes share a number of mechanistic pathways, and growing data in pregnant women indicate that snoring and sleep apnea increase the risk of these and other complications for both the mother and the fetus. Nevertheless, direct evidence of the pathophysiologic mechanisms by which sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy exerts negative effects remains sparse. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Grandner M.A.,Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology | Patel N.P.,Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology | Gehrman P.R.,Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology | Gehrman P.R.,University of Pennsylvania | And 2 more authors.
Sleep Medicine Reviews | Year: 2010

Existing data from laboratory studies suggest a number of negative consequences of acute reductions in sleep time. Also, epidemiological data suggest links between shorter self-reported sleep duration and negative health outcomes. These bodies of work are growing, revealing several key points of convergence and opportunities for future exploration. In addition, they begin to highlight possible problems experienced by "short sleepers," who sleep approximately 6 h or less per night. While it is likely that this group is heterogeneous, comprised both of individuals with less need for sleep and those not sleeping enough, the laboratory and epidemiological findings point towards directions that can be more fully explored in verified short sleepers. This paper discusses problems associated with the terminology used to describe "short sleep," summarizes laboratory studies exploring neurobehavioral performance, metabolism and obesity, and psychological health and epidemiological studies exploring mortality risk, obesity and metabolism, cardiovascular disease, and general health/psychosocial stress, describes studies of verified short sleepers and explores areas of convergence, laying out possible future directions. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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