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Payne J.D.,University of Notre Dame | Payne J.D.,Harvard University | Payne J.D.,Center for Sleep and Cognition | Tucker M.A.,Harvard University | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Numerous studies have examined sleep's influence on a range of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory tasks, from text learning to spatial navigation. In this study, we examined the impact of sleep, wake, and time-of-day influences on the processing of declarative information with strong semantic links (semantically related word pairs) and information requiring the formation of novel associations (unrelated word pairs). Participants encoded a set of related or unrelated word pairs at either 9am or 9pm, and were then tested after an interval of 30 min, 12 hr, or 24 hr. The time of day at which subjects were trained had no effect on training performance or initial memory of either word pair type. At 12 hr retest, memory overall was superior following a night of sleep compared to a day of wakefulness. However, this performance difference was a result of a pronounced deterioration in memory for unrelated word pairs across wake; there was no sleep-wake difference for related word pairs. At 24 hr retest, with all subjects having received both a full night of sleep and a full day of wakefulness, we found that memory was superior when sleep occurred shortly after learning rather than following a full day of wakefulness. Lastly, we present evidence that the rate of deterioration across wakefulness was significantly diminished when a night of sleep preceded the wake period compared to when no sleep preceded wake, suggesting that sleep served to stabilize the memories against the deleterious effects of subsequent wakefulness. Overall, our results demonstrate that 1) the impact of 12 hr of waking interference on memory retention is strongly determined by word-pair type, 2) sleep is most beneficial to memory 24 hr later if it occurs shortly after learning, and 3) sleep does in fact stabilize declarative memories, diminishing the negative impact of subsequent wakefulness. © 2012 Payne et al. Source


Tucker M.A.,Harvard University | Tucker M.A.,Center for Sleep and Cognition | Tang S.X.,Harvard University | Uzoh A.,Harvard University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

While numerous studies have shown that a night of sleep profits memory relative to wake, we still have little understanding about what factors mediate this effect of sleep. A clear understanding of the dynamics of this effect of sleep beyond the initial night of sleep is also lacking. Here, we examined the effect of extrinsic rewards on sleep-dependent declarative memory processing across 12 and 24 hr training-retest intervals. Subjects were either paid based on their performance at retest ($1 for each correct answer), or received a flat fee for participation. After a 12 hr interval we observed pronounced benefits of both sleep and reward on memory. Over an extended 24 hr interval we found 1) that an initial night of sleep partially protects memories from subsequent deterioration during wake, and 2) that sleep blocks further deterioration, and may even have a restorative effect on memory, when it follows a full day of wake. Interestingly, the benefit imparted to rewarded (relative to unrewarded) stimuli was equal for sleep and wake subjects, suggesting that the sleeping brain may not differentially process rewarded information, relative to wake. However, looking at the overall impact of sleep relative to reward in this protocol, it was apparent that sleep both imparted a stronger mnemonic boost than reward, and provided a benefit to memory regardless of whether it occurred in the first or the second 12 hrs following task training. © 2011 Tucker et al. Source

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