Roelofs B.A.,Center for Shock |
Ge S.X.,Center for Shock |
Studlack P.E.,University of Maryland, Baltimore |
Polster B.M.,Center for Shock |
Polster B.M.,University of Maryland, Baltimore
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2015
Abstract MitoSOX Red is a fluorescent probe used for the detection of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species by live cell imaging. The lipophilic, positively charged triphenylphosphonium moiety within MitoSOX concentrates the superoxide-sensitive dihydroethidium conjugate within the mitochondrial matrix. Here we investigated whether common MitoSOX imaging protocols influence mitochondrial bioenergetic function in primary rat cortical neurons and microglial cell lines. MitoSOX dose-dependently uncoupled neuronal respiration, whether present continuously in the assay medium or washed following a ten minute loading protocol. Concentrations of 5-10 μM MitoSOX caused severe loss of ATP synthesis-linked respiration. Redistribution of MitoSOX to the cytoplasm and nucleus occurred concomitant to mitochondrial uncoupling. MitoSOX also dose-dependently decreased the maximal respiration rate and this impairment could not be rescued by delivery of a complex IV specific substrate, revealing complex IV inhibition. As in neurons, loading microglial cells with MitoSOX at low micromolar concentrations resulted in uncoupled mitochondria with reduced respiratory capacity whereas submicromolar MitoSOX had no adverse effects. The MitoSOX parent compound dihydroethidium also caused mitochondrial uncoupling and respiratory inhibition at low micromolar concentrations. However, these effects were abrogated by pre-incubating dihydroethidium with cation exchange beads to remove positively charged oxidation products, which would otherwise by sequestered by polarized mitochondria. Collectively, our results suggest that the matrix accumulation of MitoSOX or dihydroethidium oxidation products causes mitochondrial uncoupling and inhibition of complex IV. Because MitoSOX is inherently capable of causing severe mitochondrial dysfunction with the potential to alter superoxide production, its use therefore requires careful optimization in imaging protocols. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Greco T.,Center for Shock |
Fiskum G.,Center for Shock
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes | Year: 2010
Oxidative stress promotes Ca 2+-dependent opening of the mitochondrial inner membrane permeability transition pore (PTP), causing bioenergetic failure and subsequent cell death in many paradigms, including those related to acute brain injury. One approach to pre-conditioning against oxidative stress is pharmacologic activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway of antioxidant gene expression by agents such as sulforaphane (SFP). This study tested the hypothesis that administration of SFP to normal rats increases resistance of isolated brain mitochondria to redox-sensitive PTP opening. SFP or DMSO vehicle was administered intraperitoneally to adult male rats at 10 mg/kg 40 h prior to isolation of non-synaptic brain mitochondria. Mitochondria were suspended in medium containing a respiratory substrate and were exposed to an addition of Ca 2+ below the threshold for PTP opening. Subsequent addition of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) resulted in a cyclosporin A-inhibitable release of accumulated Ca 2+ into the medium, as monitored by an increase in fluorescence of Calcium Green 5N within the medium, and was preceded by a decrease in the autofluorescence of mitochondrial NAD(P)H. SFP treatment significantly reduced the rate of tBOOH-induced Ca 2+ release but did not affect NAD(P)H oxidation or inhibit PTP opening induced by the addition of phenylarsine oxide, a direct sulfhydryl oxidizing agent. SFP treatment had no effect on respiration by brain mitochondria and had no effect on PTP opening or respiration when added directly to isolated mitochondria. We conclude that SFP confers resistance of brain mitochondria to redox-regulated PTP opening, which could contribute to neuroprotection observed with SFP. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.