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Chibanda D.,University of Zimbabwe | Verhey R.,University of Zimbabwe | Munetsi E.,University of Zimbabwe | Cowan F.M.,University College London | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Mental Health Systems | Year: 2016

Background: There is a paucity of data on how to deliver complex interventions that seek to reduce the treatment gap for mental disorders, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The need for well-documented protocols which clearly describe the development and the scale-up of programs and interventions is necessary if such interventions are to be replicated elsewhere. This article describes the use of a theory of change (ToC) model to develop a brief psychological intervention for common mental disorders and its' evaluation through a cluster randomized controlled trial in Zimbabwe. Methods: A total of eight ToC workshops were held with a range of stakeholders over a 6-month period with a focus on four key components of the program: formative work, piloting, evaluation and scale-up. A ToC map was developed as part of the process with defined causal pathways leading to the desired impact. Interventions, indicators, assumptions and rationale for each point along the causal pathway were considered. Results: Political buy-in from stakeholders together with key resources, which included human, facility/infrastructure, communication and supervision were identified as critical needs using the ToC approach. Ten (10) key interventions with specific indicators, assumptions and rationale formed part of the final ToC map, which graphically illustrated the causal pathway leading to the development of a psychological intervention and the successful implementation of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Conclusion: ToC workshops can enhance stakeholder engagement through an iterative process leading to a shared vision that can improve outcomes of complex mental health interventions particularly where scaling up of the intervention is desired. © 2016 Chibanda et al. Source

Buzdugan R.,University of California at Berkeley | McCoy S.I.,University of California at Berkeley | Webb K.,University College London | Mushavi A.,Ministry of Health and Child Care | And 4 more authors.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2015

Background: In developing countries, facility-based delivery is recommended for maternal and neonatal health, and for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). However, little is known about whether or not learning one's HIV status affects one's decision to deliver in a health facility. We examined this association in Zimbabwe. Methods: We analyzed data from a 2012 cross-sectional community-based serosurvey conducted to evaluate Zimbabwe's accelerated national PMTCT program. Eligible women (≥16 years old and mothers of infants born 9-18 months before the survey) were randomly sampled from the catchment areas of 157 health facilities in five of ten provinces. Participants were interviewed about where they delivered and provided blood samples for HIV testing. Results: Overall 8796 (77 %) mothers reported facility-based delivery; uptake varied by community (30-100 %). The likelihood of facility-based delivery was not associated with maternal HIV status. Women who self-reported being HIV-positive before delivery were as likely to deliver in a health facility as women who were HIV-negative, irrespective of when they learned their status - before (adjusted prevalence ratio (PRa) = 1.04, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.00-1.09) or during pregnancy (PRa = 1.05, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.09). Mothers who had not accessed antenatal care or tested for HIV were most likely to deliver outside a health facility (69 %). Overall, however 77 % of home deliveries occurred among women who had accessed antenatal care and were HIV-tested. Conclusions: Uptake of facility-based delivery was similar among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers, which was somewhat unexpected given the substantial technical and financial investment aimed at retaining HIV-positive women in care in Zimbabwe. © 2015 Buzdugan et al. Source

Buzdugan R.,University of California at Berkeley | McCoy S.I.,University of California at Berkeley | Watadzaushe C.,Center for Sexual Health and Research Zimbabwe | Dufour M.-S.K.,University of California at San Francisco | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Objective: We estimated HIV-free infant survival and mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) rates in Zimbabwe, some of the first community-based estimates from a UNAIDS priority country. Methods: In 2012 we surveyed mother-infant pairs residing in the catchment areas of 157 health facilities randomly selected from 5 of 10 provinces in Zimbabwe. Enrolled infants were born 9-18 months before the survey. We collected questionnaires, blood samples for HIV testing, and verbal autopsies for deceased mothers/infants. Estimates were assessed among i) all HIV-exposed infants, as part of an impact evaluation of Option A of the 2010 WHO guidelines (rolled out in Zimbabwe in 2011), and ii) the subgroup of infants unexposed to Option A. We compared province-level MTCT rates measured among women in the community with MTCT rates measured using program monitoring data from facilities serving those communities. Findings: Among 8568 women with known HIV serostatus, 1107 (12.9%) were HIV-infected. Among all HIV-exposed infants, HIV-free infant survival was 90.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 88.7-92.7) and MTCT was 8.8% (95% CI: 6.9-11.1). Sixty-six percent of HIV-exposed infants were still breastfeeding. Among the 762 infants born before Option A was implemented, 90.5%(95% CI: 88.1-92.5) were alive and HIV-uninfected at 9-18 months of age, and 9.1% (95%CI: 7.1-11.7) were HIV-infected. In four provinces, the community-based MTCT rate was higher than the facility-based MTCT rate. In Harare, the community and facility-based rates were 6.0% and 9.1%, respectively. Conclusion: By 2012 Zimbabwe had made substantial progress towards the elimination of MTCT. Our HIV-free infant survival and MTCT estimates capture HIV transmissions during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding regardless of whether or not mothers accessed health services. These estimates also provide a baseline against which to measure the impact of Option A guidelines (and subsequently Option B+). Source

Buzdugan R.,University of California at Berkeley | Dufour M.-S.K.,University of California at San Francisco | McCoy S.I.,University of California at Berkeley | Watadzaushe C.,Center for Sexual Health and Research Zimbabwe | And 10 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2016

Objective: We evaluated the impact of Option A on HIV-free infant survival and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in Zimbabwe. Design: Serial cross-sectional community-based serosurveys. Methods: We analyzed serosurvey data collected in 2012 and 2014 among mother-infant pairs from catchment areas of 132 health facilities from five of 10 provinces in Zimbabwe. Eligible infants (alive or deceased) were born 9-18 months before each survey to mothers at least 16 years old. We randomly selected mother-infant pairs and conducted questionnaires, verbal autopsies, and collected blood samples. We estimated the HIV-free infant survival and MTCT rate within each catchment area and compared the 2012 and 2014 estimates using a paired t test and number of HIV infections averted because of the intervention. Results: We analyzed 7249 mother-infant pairs with viable maternal specimens collected in 2012 and 8551 in 2014. The mean difference in the catchment area level MTCT between 2014 and 2012 was -5.2 percentage points (95% confidence interval = -8.1, -2.3, P < 0.001). The mean difference in the catchment area level HIV-free survival was 5.5 percentage points (95% confidence interval = 2.6, 8.5, P < 0.001). Between 2012 and 2014, 1779 infant infections were averted compared with the pre-Option A regimen. The association between HIV-free infant survival and duration of Option A implementation was NS at the multivariate level (P = 0.093). Conclusion: We found a substantial and statistically significant increase in HIV-free survival and decrease in MTCT among infants aged 9-18 months following Option A rollout in Zimbabwe. This is the only evaluation of Option A and shows the effectiveness of Option A and Zimbabwe's remarkable progress toward eMTCT. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Mavedzenge S.N.,Rti International | Davey C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Chirenje T.,Center for Sexual Health and Research Zimbabwe | Mushati P.,Center for Sexual Health and Research Zimbabwe | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: In the context of a community-randomized trial of antiretrovirals for HIV prevention and treatment among sex workers in Zimbabwe (the SAPPH-IRe trial), we will measure the proportion of women with HIV viral load (VL) above 1000 copies/mL ("VL>1000") as our primary endpoint. We sought to characterize VL assay performance by comparing results from finger prick dried blood spots (DBS) collected in the field with plasma samples, to determine whether finger prick DBS is an acceptable sample for VL quantification in the setting. Methods: We collected whole blood from a finger prick onto filter paper and plasma samples using venipuncture from women in two communities. VL quantification was run on samples in parallel using NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 v2.0. Our trial outcome is the proportion of women with VL>1000, consistent with WHO guidelines relating to regimen switching. We therefore focused on this cut-off level for assessing sensitivity and specificity. Results were log transformed and the mean difference and standard deviation calculated, and correlation between VL quantification across sample types was evaluated. Results: A total of 149 HIV-positive women provided DBS and plasma samples; 56 (63%) reported being on antiretroviral therapy. VL ranged from undetectable-6.08 log10 using DBS and undetectable-6.40 log10 using plasma. The mean difference in VL (plasma-DBS) was 0.077 log10 (95%CI = 0.025-0.18 log10; standard deviation = 0.63 log10,). 78 (52%) DBS and 87 (58%) plasma samples had a VL>1000. Based on plasma 'gold-standard', DBS sensitivity for detection of VL>1000 was 87.4%, and specificity was 96.8%. Conclusion: There was generally good agreement between DBS and plasma VL for detection of VL>1000. Overall, finger prick DBS appeared to be an acceptable sample for classifying VL as above or below 1000 copies/mL using the NucliSENS assay. © 2015 Mavedzenge et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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