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French R.S.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Cowan F.M.,University College London | Wellings K.,Center for Sexual Health and Research CeSHHAR | Dowie J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care | Year: 2014

My Contraception Tool (MCT) applies the principles of multi-criteria decision analysis to the choice of contraceptive method. Its purpose is to make the decision-making process transparent to the user and to suggest a method to them based on their own preferences. The contraceptive option that emerges as optimal from the analysis takes account of the probability of a range of outcomes and the relative weight ascribed to them by the user. The development of MCT was a collaborative project between London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Brook, FPA and Maldaba Ltd. MCT is available online via the Brook and FPA websites. In this article we describe MCT's development and how it works. Further work is needed to assess the impact it has on decision quality and contraceptive behaviour.

Njeuhmeli E.,United States Agency for International Development | Hatzold K.,Population Services International | Gold E.,Johns Hopkins University | Mahler H.,Jhpiego Tanzania | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: By December 2013, it was estimated that close to 6 million men had been circumcised in the 14 priority countries for scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC), the majority being adolescents (10-19 years). This article discusses why efforts to scale up VMMC should prioritize adolescent men, drawing from new evidence and experiences at the international, country, and service delivery levels. Furthermore, we review the extent to which VMMC programs have reached adolescents, addressed their specific needs, and can be linked to their sexual and reproductive health and other key services. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In priority countries, adolescents represent 34%-55% of the target population to be circumcised, whereas program data from these countries show that adolescents represent between 35% and 74% of the circumcised men. VMMC for adolescents has several advantages: uptake of services among adolescents is culturally and socially more acceptable than for adults; there are fewer barriers regarding sexual abstinence during healing or female partner pressures; VMMC performed before the age of sexual debut has maximum long-term impact on reducing HIV risk at the individual level and consequently reduces the risk of transmission in the population. Offered as a comprehensive package, adolescent VMMC can potentially increase public health benefits and offers opportunities for addressing gender norms. Additional research is needed to assess whether current VMMC services address the specific needs of adolescent clients, to test adapted tools, and to assess linkages between VMMC and other adolescent-focused HIV, health, and social services. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Cowan F.M.,University College London | Cowan F.M.,Center for Sexual Health and Research CeSHHAR | Delany-Moretlwe S.,University of Witwatersrand
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS | Year: 2016

Purpose of review We explore the potential benefits of integrating preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) into combination HIV prevention for female sex workers (FSWs) and the likely challenges to implementation. Recent findings Evidence for the biological effectiveness of PrEP in women who can adhere to daily dosing is strong. FSWs in many countries bear the brunt of the HIV epidemic. Current combination prevention approaches enable many FSWs to remain HIV-free, but in some settings FSWs are unable to mitigate their risk. PrEP provides a new prevention tool for these women. To benefit, HIV-negative FSWs need to perceive that they are at risk, be motivated and able to take PrEP daily and to attend health services for prescription refill and clinical monitoring. FSWs face particular structural challenges to PrEP uptake and use, including stigmatizing health services; fear of disclosure to other FSWs and clients; fear of the authorities; lack of social support; substance use; unplanned travel and risk compensation many of which can be addressed through combination prevention approaches. Summary For those FSWs who are unable to mitigate their HIV risk, PrEP, if adequately supported and integrated with combination prevention, may empower them to remain HIV-free. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Abas M.A.,IoPPN | Abas M.A.,University of Zimbabwe | Nhiwatiwa S.M.,University of Zimbabwe | Mangezi W.,University of Zimbabwe | And 11 more authors.
International Review of Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Despite the need to improve the quantity and quality of psychiatry training in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), very little is known about the experiences of psychiatric trainees in the region. This is the first study examining psychiatric trainees in a low-income country in SSA. It was carried out as part of the needs assessment for a unique Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) programme to find African solutions for medical shortages in Africa. We approached all doctors who had trained in post-graduate psychiatry in Zimbabwe in 2010 and conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with all except one (n = 6). We analysed the data using constant comparison and thematic analysis. Trainees described the apprenticeship model as the programme's primary strength, through providing clinical exposure and role models. Programme weaknesses included shortages in information sources, trainee salaries, trainers, public health education, and in the mental health service. Most respondents were, however, eager to continue practising psychiatry in Zimbabwe, motivated by family ties, national commitment and helping vulnerable, stigmatized individuals. Respondents called for sub-speciality training and for infrastructure and training to do research. Resources need to be made available for psychiatric trainees in more SSA settings to develop public health competencies. However, investment in psychiatry training programmes must balance service provision with trainees' educational needs. Directing investment towards needs identified by trainees may be a cost-effective, context-sensitive way to increase retention and learning outcomes. © 2014 Institute of Psychiatry.

Mavhu W.,Center for Sexual Health and Research CeSHHAR | Hatzold K.,Hill International | Ncube G.,Ministry of Health and Child Care | Xaba S.,Ministry of Health and Child Care | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2016

Background: Male circumcision devices have the potential to accelerate voluntary medical male circumcision roll-out, with PrePex being one promising device. Here, we present findings on safety and acceptability from active surveillance of the implementation of PrePex among 1000 males circumcised in Zimbabwe. Methods: The first 1000 men consecutively circumcised using PrePex during routine service delivery were actively followed up. Outcome measures included PrePex uptake, attendance for postcircumcision visits, and adverse events (AEs). A survey was conducted among 500 consecutive active surveillance clients to assess acceptability and satisfaction with PrePex. Results: A total of 2156 men aged 18 years or older were circumcised across the 6 PrePex active surveillance sites. Of these, 1000 (46.4%) were circumcised using PrePex. Among them, 4 (0.4%) self-removals that required surgery (severe AEs) were observed. Six (0.6%) removals by providers (moderate AEs) did not require surgery. A further 280 (28%) AEs were mild or moderate pain during device removal. There were also 12 (1.2%) moderate AEs unrelated to pain. All AEs resolved without sequelae. There was high adherence to follow-up appointments, with 97.7% of clients attending the scheduled day 7 visit. Acceptability of PrePex was high among survey participants, 93% indicated willingness to recommend the device to peers. Of note, 95.8% of respondents reported experiencing pain when the device was being removed. Additionally, 85.2% reported experiencing odor while wearing the device or during removal. Conclusions: Active surveillance of the first 1000 men circumcised using PrePex suggests that the device is both safe and acceptable when used in routine service delivery. © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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