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Baltimore Highlands, MD, United States

Fischer W.A.,Johns Hopkins University | King L.S.,Johns Hopkins University | Lane A.P.,Center for Sensory Biology | Pekosz A.,Johns Hopkins University
Vaccine | Year: 2015

Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV) strains are associated with cold adapted, temperature sensitive and attenuated phenotypes that have been studied in non-human or immortalized cell cultures as well as in animal models. Using a primary, differentiated human nasal epithelial cell (hNEC) culture system we compared the replication kinetics, levels of cell-associated viral proteins and virus particle release during infection with LAIV or the corresponding wild type (WT) influenza viruses. At both 33. °C and 37. °C, seasonal influenza virus and an antigenically matched LAIV replicated to similar titers in MDCK cells but seasonal influenza virus replicated to higher titers than LAIV in hNEC cultures, suggesting a greater restriction of LAIV replication in hNEC cultures. Despite the disparity in infectious virus production, the supernatants from H1N1 and LAIV infected hNEC cultures had equivalent amounts of viral proteins and hemagglutination titers, suggesting the formation of non-infectious virus particles by LAIV in hNEC cultures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Dowdle W.E.,University of California at San Francisco | Robinson J.F.,Duke University | Andreas Kneist,RWTH Aachen | Sirerol-Piquer M.S.,CIBER ISCIII | And 18 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2011

Nearly every ciliated organism possesses three B9 domain-containing proteins: MKS1, B9D1, and B9D2. Mutations in human MKS1 cause Meckel syndrome (MKS), a severe ciliopathy characterized by occipital encephalocele, liver ductal plate malformations, polydactyly, and kidney cysts. Mouse mutations in either Mks1 or B9d2 compromise ciliogenesis and result in phenotypes similar to those of MKS. Given the importance of these two B9 proteins to ciliogenesis, we examined the role of the third B9 protein, B9d1. Mice lacking B9d1 displayed polydactyly, kidney cysts, ductal plate malformations, and abnormal patterning of the neural tube, concomitant with compromised ciliogenesis, ciliary protein localization, and Hedgehog (Hh) signal transduction. These data prompted us to screen MKS patients for mutations in B9D1 and B9D2. We identified a homozygous c.301A>C (p.Ser101Arg) B9D2 mutation that segregates with MKS, affects an evolutionarily conserved residue, and is absent from controls. Unlike wild-type B9D2 mRNA, the p.Ser101Arg mutation failed to rescue zebrafish phenotypes induced by the suppression of b9d2. With coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric analyses, we found that Mks1, B9d1, and B9d2 interact physically, but that the p.Ser101Arg mutation abrogates the ability of B9d2 to interact with Mks1, further suggesting that the mutation compromises B9d2 function. Our data indicate that B9d1 is required for normal Hh signaling, ciliogenesis, and ciliary protein localization and that B9d1 and B9d2 are essential components of a B9 protein complex, disruption of which causes MKS. © 2011 by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved. Source

McNeil B.,Center for Sensory Biology | Dong X.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Neuroscience Bulletin | Year: 2012

Detection of environmental stimuli that provoke an aversive response has been shown to involve many receptors in the periphery. Probably the least-studied of these stimuli are those that induce the perception of itch (pruritus), an often-experienced unpleasant stimulus. This review covers the ligands and their receptors which are known to cause primary sensory neuron activation and initiate itch sensation. Also covered are several itch-inducing substances which may act indirectly by activating other cell types in the periphery which then signal to primary neurons. Finally, progress in identifying candidate neurotransmitters that sensory neurons use to propagate the itch signal is discussed. © 2012 Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Han L.,Center for Sensory Biology | Dong X.,Center for Sensory Biology | Dong X.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Annual Review of Biophysics | Year: 2014

The itch-scratch reflex serves as a protective mechanism in everyday life. However, chronic persistent itching can be devastating. Despite the clinical importance of the itch sensation, its mechanism remains elusive. In the past decade, substantial progress has been made to uncover the mystery of itching. Here, we review the molecules, cells, and circuits known to mediate the itch sensation, which, coupled with advances in understanding the pathophysiology of chronic itching conditions, will hopefully contribute to the development of new anti-itch therapies. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Green D.,Center for Sensory Biology | Dong X.,Center for Sensory Biology | Dong X.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Journal of Cell Biology | Year: 2016

Itch, the irritation we feel and the relief that comes from scratching, is an evolutionary warning system and defense against harmful environmental agents. Although once considered a subtype of pain, itch is now recognized as a unique sense, with its own distinct physiology and cell receptors. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of itch and the molecular players that mediate this sensory modality. © 2016 Green and Dong. Source

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