Center For Scientific Research Into Plant Medicine

Mampong, Ghana

Center For Scientific Research Into Plant Medicine

Mampong, Ghana
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Attah S.K.,University of Ghana | Ayeh-Kumi P.F.,University of Ghana | Sittie A.A.,Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine | Oppong I.V.,University of Ghana | Nyarko A.K.,University of Ghana
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Onchocerciasis transmitted by Onchocerca volvulus is the second major cause of blindness in the world and it impacts negatively on the socio-economic development of the communities affected. Currently, ivermectin, a microfilaricidal drug is the only drug recommended for treating this disease. There have been speculations, of late, concerning O. volvulus resistance to ivermectin. Owing to this, it has become imperative to search for new drugs. World-wide, ethnomedicines including extracts of Euphorbia hirta and Rauvolfia vomitoria are used for treating various diseases, both infectious and non-infectious.Method: In this study extracts of the two plants were evaluated in vitro in order to determine their effect against O. volvulus microfilariae. The toxicity of the E. hirta extracts on monkey kidney cell (LLCMK2) lines was also determined.Results: The investigations showed that extracts of both plants immobilised microfilariae at different levels in vitro and, therefore, possess antifilarial properties. It was found that all the E. hirta extracts with the exception of the hexane extracts were more effective than those of R. vomitoria. Among the extracts of E. hirta the ethyl acetate fraction was most effective, and comparable to that of dimethanesulphonate salt but higher than that of Melarsoprol (Mel B). However, the crude ethanolic extract of E. hirta was found to be the least toxic to the LLCMK2 compared to the fractionated forms.Conclusions: Extracts from both plants possess antifilarial properties; however, the crude extract of E. hirta was found to be least toxic to LLCMK2. © 2013 Attah et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Martey O.N.-K.,Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine | Armah G.,University of Ghana | Okine L.K.N.-A.,Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine
African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines | Year: 2010

The sub-chronic toxicity of Tonica, an aqueous herbal haematinic prepared from the stem barks of Khaya senegalensis, Mitragyna stipulosa and Kigelia africana, was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats at 28, 280 and 560 mg kg-1 day-1, representing the normal human dose, 10x and 20x that dose, respectively for 6 weeks. The growth rate of animals over the period of treatment and certain serum biochemical and haematological indices as well as urinalysis and weight of selected organs at termination, were determined. Results show that the extract did not affect the weight gain of the animals with time or the mean wet weights of selected organs. Although there were slight but insignificant (p>0.05) elevations in WBC (16-27%) and PLT (8- 11%) counts in Tonica-treated animals compared to controls at 10x and 20x the normal dose, most serum biochemical, haematological and urinalysis data indicated no significant differences (p>0.05) between tests and control rats. There were also no changes in the morphology of liver, kidney, lung and heart tissues as a result of Tonica treatment. These findings suggest that Tonica is safe at the dosage regimens administered to the animals in this study, and there appears to be no overt organ specific toxicity associated with it.


Quasie O.,Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine | Martey O.N.K.,Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine | Nyarko A.K.,University of Ghana | Gbewonyo W.S.K.,University of Ghana | Okine L.K.N.,Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine
African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines | Year: 2010

Mondia whitei root was evaluated to validate its anecdotal use and determine its possible mode of action in the management of erectile dysfunction. Rabbits were administered with daily oral doses of 100-400 mg kg -1 crude ethanolic extract of M. whitei and sildenafil (50 mg kg -1) as positive control for 6 weeks. Cavernosal tissue NOS activity and levels of NO and cGMP, and NOS and PDE protein expressions were investigated. The effect of the crude extract, chloroform and petroleum ether fractions in vitro on cavernosal tissue NOS activity and levels of NO and cGMP at 0.01 and 0.10 mg g -1 tissue were also investigated. Results indicate that the crude extract increased NOS activity by 7% at 200 mg kg -1 with corresponding increases in NO (88%) and cGMP (480%) levels. No significant changes in these measurements were observed with the 100 and 400 mg kg -1 doses whilst sildenafil slightly reduced them (15.9-37.5%). NOS and PDE protein expressions in test animals were not different from controls. Pre-incubation of cavernosal tissue in vitro with the crude extract of M. whitei and its chloroform fraction markedly increased NOS activity (26-132%) and levels of NO (25%) and cGMP (50-400%) at 0.01 mg g -1 tissue but these were reduced to near control levels when their concentrations were increased to 0.10 mg g -1 tissue whilst the petroleum ether fraction had no effect. These findings suggest that M. whitei may influence erectile function through activation/stimulation of NOS with corresponding increases in tissue NO and cGMP levels and that certain chemical constituents present in the chloroform fraction may be responsible for biological activity.


Patent
Tokyo Medical, Dental University, Center For Scientific Research Into Plant Medicine, University of Ghana and Nagasaki International University | Date: 2014-01-07

The present invention provides anti-trypanosomal agent for treating, preventing Trypanosomiasis of mammals, which comprises a compound having the tetracyclic iridoid skeleton represented by a general formula (I).


PubMed | University of Ghana, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Nagasaki International University and Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters | Year: 2015

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly known as sleeping sickness has remained a serious health problem in many African countries with thousands of new infected cases annually. Chemotherapy, which is the main form of control against HAT has been characterized lately by the viewpoints of toxicity and drug resistance issues. Recently, there have been a lot of emphases on the use of medicinal plants world-wide. Morinda lucida Benth. is one of the most popular medicinal plants widely distributed in Africa and several groups have reported on its anti-protozoa activities. In this study, we have isolated one novel tetracyclic iridoid, named as molucidin, from the CHCl3 fraction of the M. lucida leaves by bioassay-guided fractionation and purification. Molucidin was structurally elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR including HMQC, HMBC, H-H COSY and NOESY resulting in tetracyclic iridoid skeleton, and its absolute configuration was determined. We have further demonstrated that molucidin presented a strong anti-trypanosomal activity, indicating an IC50 value of 1.27 M. The cytotoxicity study using human normal and cancer cell lines indicated that molucidin exhibited selectivity index (SI) against two normal fibroblasts greater than 4.73. Furthermore, structure-activity relationship (SAR) study was undertaken with molucidin and oregonin, which is identical to anti-trypanosomal active components of Alnus japonica. Overlapping analysis of the lowest energy conformation of molucidin with oregonin suggested a certain similarities of aromatic rings of both oregonin and molucidin. These results contribute to the future drug design studies for HAT.


PubMed | Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine and University of Ghana
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS | Year: 2014

The safety evaluation of Capparis erythrocarpus (CE) on chronic administration at 18 and 180 mg kg(-1) body weight for 6 months was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of CE on certain serum biochemical, haematological, urine and histopathological determinations were used as indices of organ specific toxicity. Also the effects of CE on rat blood clotting time and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time were determined. Results indicate that CE had no effect on urine, haematological and serum biochemical indices at termination of treatment with the exception of serum ALT level which was significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated in a dose-dependent fashion (21-35%). There were also no differences in blood clotting time and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time between CE-treated and control animals. Histopathological studies showed that CE did not adversely affect the morphology of the liver, kidney and heart tissues. However, lungs of CE-treated animals showed slight but insignificant inflammatory response in alveolar areas and Clara cell hyperplasia without the thickening of alveolar septa and bronchiolar epithelial wall. Organ weights were not adversely affected by CE treatment. There were significant (p < 0.05) changes in weight of CE-treated animals with duration of treatment compared to control. These results suggest that there is no organ specific toxicity associated with chronic administration of CE in rats and its ability to reduce body weight may be useful for slimming in obese persons.


Boye A.,University Of Cape Coast | Boye A.,Anhui Medical University | Boampong V.A.,University Of Cape Coast | Takyi N.,Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine | Martey O.,Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2016

Ethnopharmacological relevance: The seeds of Parkia clappertoniana Keay (Family: Fabaceae) are extensively used in food in the form of a local condiment called 'Dawadawa' in Ghana and consumed by all class of people including sensitive groups such as pregnant women and children. Also, crudely pounded preparations of P. clappertoniana seeds are used as labor inducing agent in farm animals by local farmers across northern Ghana where nomadism is the livelihood of most indigenes. Ecologically, P. clappertoniana is extensively distributed across the savannah ecological zone of many African countries where just like Ghana it enjoys ethnobotanical usage. Although, many studies have investigated some aspects of the pharmacological activity of P. clappertoniana, none of these studies focused on the reproductive system, particularly its effects on reproductive performance and toxicity. To contribute, this study assessed the effect of aqueous seed extract of P. clappertoniana (PCE) on reproductive performance and toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats and ICR mice. Methods: After preparation of PCE, it was then tested on rodents at different gestational and developmental windows (1-7, 8-14, and 15-term gestational days) to assess the following: mating behavior, implantation rate, maternal and developmental toxicities. Generally, animals were randomly grouped into five and treated as follows: normal saline group (5 ml/kg po), cytotec (misoprostol) group (200 mg/kg po), folic acid group (5 mg/kg po), and PCE groups (100, 200, and 500 mg/kg po), however, these groupings were varied to suit the specific requirements of some parameters. For acute toxicity, animals were orally administered PCE (3 and 5 g/kg for mice and rats respectively). Results: PCE-treated rats showed improved mating behavior compared to control rats. PCE improved implantation rate compared to misoprostol-treated rats. On the average, PCE-treated rats delivered termed live pubs at 21 days compared to that of folic acid-treated rats at 23 days. Also, PCE-treated rats showed no observable maternal and developmental toxicities compared to folic acid and control rats. PCE (3-5 g/kg po) was orally tolerated in rodents. Conclusion: Oral administration of Parkia clappertoniana seed extract improves reproductive performance in rodents with no observable maternal and developmental toxicity. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Anhui Medical University, Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine and University Of Cape Coast
Type: | Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology | Year: 2016

The seeds of Parkia clappertoniana Keay (Family: Fabaceae) are extensively used in food in the form of a local condiment called Dawadawa in Ghana and consumed by all class of people including sensitive groups such as pregnant women and children. Also, crudely pounded preparations of P. clappertoniana seeds are used as labor inducing agent in farm animals by local farmers across northern Ghana where nomadism is the livelihood of most indigenes. Ecologically, P. clappertoniana is extensively distributed across the savannah ecological zone of many African countries where just like Ghana it enjoys ethnobotanical usage. Although, many studies have investigated some aspects of the pharmacological activity of P. clappertoniana, none of these studies focused on the reproductive system, particularly its effects on reproductive performance and toxicity. To contribute, this study assessed the effect of aqueous seed extract of P. clappertoniana (PCE) on reproductive performance and toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats and ICR mice.After preparation of PCE, it was then tested on rodents at different gestational and developmental windows (1-7, 8-14, and 15-term gestational days) to assess the following: mating behavior, implantation rate, maternal and developmental toxicities. Generally, animals were randomly grouped into five and treated as follows: normal saline group (5ml/kg po), cytotec (misoprostol) group (200mg/kg po), folic acid group (5mg/kg po), and PCE groups (100, 200, and 500mg/kg po), however, these groupings were varied to suit the specific requirements of some parameters. For acute toxicity, animals were orally administered PCE (3 and 5g/kg for mice and rats respectively).PCE-treated rats showed improved mating behavior compared to control rats. PCE improved implantation rate compared to misoprostol-treated rats. On the average, PCE-treated rats delivered termed live pubs at 21 days compared to that of folic acid-treated rats at 23 days. Also, PCE-treated rats showed no observable maternal and developmental toxicities compared to folic acid and control rats. PCE (3-5g/kg po) was orally tolerated in rodents.Oral administration of Parkia clappertoniana seed extract improves reproductive performance in rodents with no observable maternal and developmental toxicity.


Joseph S.A.,Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines | Year: 2013

The antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities of a Ghanaian medicinal plant namely Adenia lobata Engl (Passifloraceae), used to treat diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine, was investigated. The dried stem powder of A. lobata was successively extracted by Soxhlet with petroleum ether and 70% ethanol to obtain the crude petroleum ether (PEAL: yield =1.1 w/w %) and ethanol (EEAL: yield = 5.4 w/w %) extracts. The extracts were assessed for their antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities. The antihyperglycaemic activity of PEAL and EEAL were determined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (70 mg/kg body weight). Five groups of diabetic rats were given 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight of PEAL and EEAL orally once daily for 20 days. Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg body weight) was used as positive control while distilled water (5 ml) acted as the normal diabetic control. The blood glucose levels were monitored initially for 6 hours and subsequently over 24 days. Both extracts exhibited statistically significant (p< 0.001) antihyperglycaemic activity throughout the study period, with EEAL showing the greatest activity. The antioxidant properties of the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of A. lobata (PEAL and EEAL) were evaluated using five assays; total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, DPPH scavenging effect and lipid peroxidation activity. In all these assays, the antioxidant properties increased with increasing concentration of the extracts.


Mills-Robertson F.C.,Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine | Tay S.C.K.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | Duker-Eshun G.,Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine | Walana W.,Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine | Badu K.,Kenya Medical Research Institute
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials | Year: 2012

Background: Following claims that some plants have antimicrobial activities against infectious microbes, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of different solvent fractions of ethanolic extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta were evaluated against eight standard bacteria and clinical isolates.Methods: The solvent partitioning protocol involving ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water, was used to extract various fractions of dried pulverized Cryptolepis sanguinolenta roots. Qualitative phyto-constituents screening was performed on the ethanol extract, chloroform fraction and the water fraction. The Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method was employed to ascertain the antibiogram of the test organisms while the agar diffusion method was used to investigate the antimicrobial properties of the crude plant extracts. The microplate dilution method aided in finding the MICs while the MBCs were obtained by the method of Nester and friends. The SPSS 16.0 version was used to analyze the percentages of inhibitions and bactericidal activities.Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, polyuronides, anthocyanosides and triterpenes. The ethanol extract inhibited 5 out of 8 (62.5%) of the standard organisms and 6 out of 8 (75%) clinical isolates. The petroleum ether fraction inhibited 4 out of 8 (50%) of the standard microbes and 1 out of 8 (12.5%) clinical isolates. It was also observed that the chloroform fraction inhibited the growth of all the organisms (100%). Average inhibition zones of 14.0 ± 1.0 mm to 24.67 ± 0.58 mm was seen in the ethyl acetate fraction which halted the growth of 3 (37.5%) of the standard organisms. Inhibition of 7 (87.5%) of standard strains and 6 (75%) of clinical isolates were observed in the water fraction. The chloroform fraction exhibited bactericidal activity against all the test organisms while the remaining fractions showed varying degrees of bacteriostatic activity.Conclusion: The study confirmed that fractions of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta have antimicrobial activity. The chloroform fraction had the highest activity, followed by water, ethanol, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate respectively. Only the chloroform fraction exhibited bactericidal activity and further investigations are needed to ascertain its safety and prospects of drug development. © 2012 Mills-Robertson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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