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Donkor K.,Center For Scientific Research Into Plant Medicine | Okine L.N.K.,University of Ghana
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2014

Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of the aqueous extract of the root bark of C. sieberiana (Caesalpiniaceae), a plant used locally in Ghana for the treatment of pain, was carried out in rodents. In the acute study, a single oral dose (5000 mg/kg) of the aqueous extract of C. sieberiana (NPK) was administered to six rats and six mice, and observed for 14 days for signs of acute toxicity. In the sub-chronic study, rats were administered with NPK (15- 750 mg/kg) daily for three months. Urinalysis, haematological and biochemical analyses were carried out on urine, blood and serum samples collected at the end of the three-month treatment. Histological analyses of the liver, heart, kidney and lung tissues were also done. The results showed that administration of 5000 mg/kg of NPK to animals did not result in death. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) between control and test animals in the haematological assay. The albumin, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin were higher (p<0.05) in test animals compared to the controls. Liver micrographs showed centrilobular necrosis at the dose of 750 mg/kg. The findings, therefore, show that the oral toxicity of NPK in rodents is low (oral LD50 > 5000 mg/kg). However, the extract may have deleterious effects on the liver at high doses on prolonged administration. © 2014 Kofi Donkor et al. Source


Uto T.,Nagasaki International University | Tung N.H.,Nagasaki International University | Tung N.H.,Center For Scientific Research Into Plant Medicine | Appiah-Opong R.,Vietnam National University, Hanoi | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Chinese Medicine | Year: 2015

Alnus japonica Steud is a tree that grows in damp areas of mountain valleys and has been used as a traditional medicine in Asia. We investigated the antiproliferative activity of hirsutanone (Hir) and oregonin (Ore) in human cancer cell lines and elucidated their mechanisms of action. A cytotoxicity study using a panel of 12 human cancer and 4 normal cell lines indicated that Hir exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against 4 leukemia (Jurkat, U937, THP-1, and HL-60) and 2 colon cancer cell lines (HCT-15 and Colo205). Although Ore suppressed the cell growth of Jurkat and THP-1, its inhibitory potency was weaker than that of Hir. The IC50 values of Hir and Ore in Jurkat were 11.37 μM and 22.16 μM, respectively. Further analysis on Jurkat cells demonstrated that Hir caused a sequence of events involved in apoptosis, including nuclear morphological changes and accumulation of cells with sub-G1 DNA content. Hir led to the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and activation of caspase-3,-8, and-9. In addition, Hir-induced PARP cleavage was completely abolished by specific inhibitors to these caspases. Our data suggested that Hir is a potent antiproliferative compound against the 4 leukemia cell lines and the 2 colon cancer cell lines tested. Furthermore, Hir exerts antiproliferative actions via caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company & Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine. Source


Joseph S.A.,Center For Scientific Research Into Plant Medicine
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines | Year: 2013

The antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities of a Ghanaian medicinal plant namely Adenia lobata Engl (Passifloraceae), used to treat diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine, was investigated. The dried stem powder of A. lobata was successively extracted by Soxhlet with petroleum ether and 70% ethanol to obtain the crude petroleum ether (PEAL: yield =1.1 w/w %) and ethanol (EEAL: yield = 5.4 w/w %) extracts. The extracts were assessed for their antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities. The antihyperglycaemic activity of PEAL and EEAL were determined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (70 mg/kg body weight). Five groups of diabetic rats were given 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight of PEAL and EEAL orally once daily for 20 days. Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg body weight) was used as positive control while distilled water (5 ml) acted as the normal diabetic control. The blood glucose levels were monitored initially for 6 hours and subsequently over 24 days. Both extracts exhibited statistically significant (p< 0.001) antihyperglycaemic activity throughout the study period, with EEAL showing the greatest activity. The antioxidant properties of the petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of A. lobata (PEAL and EEAL) were evaluated using five assays; total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, DPPH scavenging effect and lipid peroxidation activity. In all these assays, the antioxidant properties increased with increasing concentration of the extracts. Source


Attah S.K.,University of Ghana | Ayeh-Kumi P.F.,University of Ghana | Sittie A.A.,Center For Scientific Research Into Plant Medicine | Oppong I.V.,University of Ghana | Nyarko A.K.,University of Ghana
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Onchocerciasis transmitted by Onchocerca volvulus is the second major cause of blindness in the world and it impacts negatively on the socio-economic development of the communities affected. Currently, ivermectin, a microfilaricidal drug is the only drug recommended for treating this disease. There have been speculations, of late, concerning O. volvulus resistance to ivermectin. Owing to this, it has become imperative to search for new drugs. World-wide, ethnomedicines including extracts of Euphorbia hirta and Rauvolfia vomitoria are used for treating various diseases, both infectious and non-infectious.Method: In this study extracts of the two plants were evaluated in vitro in order to determine their effect against O. volvulus microfilariae. The toxicity of the E. hirta extracts on monkey kidney cell (LLCMK2) lines was also determined.Results: The investigations showed that extracts of both plants immobilised microfilariae at different levels in vitro and, therefore, possess antifilarial properties. It was found that all the E. hirta extracts with the exception of the hexane extracts were more effective than those of R. vomitoria. Among the extracts of E. hirta the ethyl acetate fraction was most effective, and comparable to that of dimethanesulphonate salt but higher than that of Melarsoprol (Mel B). However, the crude ethanolic extract of E. hirta was found to be the least toxic to the LLCMK2 compared to the fractionated forms.Conclusions: Extracts from both plants possess antifilarial properties; however, the crude extract of E. hirta was found to be least toxic to LLCMK2. © 2013 Attah et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Patent
Tokyo Medical, Dental University, Center For Scientific Research Into Plant Medicine, University of Ghana and Nagasaki International University | Date: 2014-01-07

The present invention provides anti-trypanosomal agent for treating, preventing Trypanosomiasis of mammals, which comprises a compound having the tetracyclic iridoid skeleton represented by a general formula (I).

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