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Manea L.R.,Technical University Gheorghe Asachi | Cramariuc B.,Center for Science and Technology | Caunii V.,Technical University Gheorghe Asachi | Sandu I.,Al. I. Cuza University
Materiale Plastice | Year: 2015

The present context of the international studies identifies the electrospinning process as one of the key technologies for obtaing nanofibers. The dynamics of the studies connected to the implementation of this technology is given by the great diversity of the applications of the obtained nanofibers which start from filtering mediums and separating membranes to sensors and actuators, implants, structures for the controlled release of drugs up to the molecular photonics. This paper aims to present a new equipment for obtaining the nanofibers from polymer solutions by means of the electrospinning technology. The suggested equipment accomplishes the computerized control of the electrospinning technological parameters on starting from the idea of modularity and automatic control of the electrospinning process. The equipment allows the real time control for the electrospinning process based on determination of both jet characteristics and the obtained nanofibers properties.

Cramariuc B.,Center for Science and Technology | Scarlet R.,Technical University Gheorghe Asachi | Manea L.R.,Technical University Gheorghe Asachi | Lupu I.G.,Technical University Gheorghe Asachi | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Electrostatics | Year: 2013

In order to increase the control on the fiber diameter we propose in this paper a methodology to determine stability domains of the process in which the electrospun fiber diameter can be predetermined and also controlled by means of the polymer solution flow and the applied voltage. To define these stability domains we employ a combination of analytical expressions depending on the location along the traveling jet. In the vicinity of the nozzle we employ the expression which links the fiber diameter with the kinematic viscosity of the polymer solution, nozzle-collector distance, solution density, liquid flow, electric current and intensity of the electrostatic field. At larger distances from the nozzle, the fiber diameter can be expressed as a function of solution density, liquid flow, intensity of the applied electrostatic field and distance from the nozzle. Close to the collector the fiber diameter can be expressed with respect to the superficial tension of the polymer solution, dielectric permittivity, liquid flow and intensity of the electric current. Under specific constrains, the superposition of the plots obtained from these mathematical expressions will be used to determine the stability domain for the fiber diameter in which the diameter can be controlled by two process parameters, namely applied voltage and polymer solution flow. Through this approach the present paper can contribute to increased control of the electrospinning process and thus enhanced applicability. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Suni S.S.,Center for Science and Technology
Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies, ICCPCT 2016 | Year: 2016

Human gestures are very prominent means to interface with intelligent systems naturally and nonverbally. This paper presents a robust and real time vision based decision support system that automatically predicts the head nod and shake gestures for decision making. Here we apply the Gentle Adaboost algorithm that detects the faces in the video frames automatically. Real time eye tracking is performed to find the center coordinates of the eyes from the detected face region. In this work, we propose support vector machine classifier, a robust algorithm based on machine learning for predicting head nod and shake gestures. Moreover, this system can function as real time decision support tool in an online environment. The proposed system is implemented and tested for several real time videos. The experimental results show that this system is able to detect head nod and shake gestures with a detection rate of 91.1%. © 2016 IEEE.

News Article | December 4, 2015

Few undergraduates have pinned down their post-graduation plans as precisely as senior Carolena Ruprecht. Just after commencement on June 3, 2016, Ruprecht will attend a Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) commissioning ceremony, and then be whisked off to her commission as a surface warfare officer, destined to serve on an aircraft carrier. There, she will lead an elite crew responsible for maintaining and operating the ship’s nuclear-powered systems. “I have always been driven to do as much as I can with everything I do,” Ruprecht says. “In eighth grade, I began looking into the [U.S. military] academies, and the idea of combining my abilities in math and science with service really appealed to me.” During high school, her academic interests settled quickly on nuclear engineering: “It seemed like a cool and exciting challenge to produce so much energy from a small amount of material, as if you were unlocking some secret of the universe,” she says. Ruprecht was decisive about college, too. “My goal was MIT,” she says, because of its engineering strengths. For officer training she chose the U.S. Navy, with its “great nuclear program” powering a fleet of ships and submarines. The fact that she’d grown up on the Jersey shore “loving being near water” clinched the decision. When she arrived in Cambridge in 2012, Ruprecht quickly discovered she would be contending with more than the usual rigors of undergraduate life. “I’ve felt like an ordinary student while in classes, but I have extra responsibilities that probably most other students don’t have,” she says. While pursuing her degree in nuclear science and engineering, Ruprecht must also drill daily as a Navy midshipman. Like other MIT students, she’ll do homework until midnight or so and then be up at the crack of dawn for physical training. “The hardest part,” she says, is that “no one else has to wake up at 5 a.m.” After spending the first few years of her major focused on science and theory, Ruprecht is excited to be plunging into reactor engineering and design courses. She is engaged in an undergraduate research project using the DANTE electrostatic accelerator in MIT’s Vault Laboratory for Nuclear Science (part of the Center for Science and Technology with Accelerators and Radiation), which offers her a much-sought opportunity for hands-on engineering experience. Under the supervision of Dennis Whyte, MIT Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering head and director of the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Ruprecht is building filters for the accelerator’s particle beam. Her project is part of a much larger investigation of applications for the DANTE accelerator, which was originally designed to produce neutrons for cancer therapy studies. Ruprecht’s filter sits at the front end of a 12-foot-long tube through which a beam of ions is accelerated, with voltage determining the velocity of the ions. Ruprecht’s filter is intended to exclude certain kinds of ions, while admitting others. “The purer the beam, the better the data,” she says. The information Ruprecht collects as she measures cross sections of the beam will eventually be incorporated in her senior thesis. Although the going has been slow, with the accelerator balking at times, Ruprecht has been thrilled to build the filters, using magnets, soldering iron, wires, and screws, and to install them in the accelerator. “I learned the science and did the calculations in class, but it is so cool to see how things work, or don’t, in real life,” she says. Her focus now is on practicing what she has learned, and readying herself for a leadership role managing a nuclear reactor on a Navy ship. “I will be making sure it’s running right, delivering power the ship needs, and is safe,” she says. This spring she will learn the name of the ship to which she is assigned. Ruprecht imagines this job will be “challenging,” but she can imagine nothing more gratifying than “being part of the Navy program, on the nuclear side of things.” She hopes someday to return to school for a master’s degree, and get involved somehow in sustainable energy in civilian life. “I’d love to participate in building a nuclear reactor on time, within budget, and delivering power to lots of people,” she says. But school is not in the cards in the foreseeable future. “It’s hard for me to sit still,” says Ruprecht. “I’m definitely ready to spend time out of the classroom, to go out and start practicing what I’ve learned.”

Placek B.,University at Albany | Placek B.,Center for Science and Technology | Knuth K.H.,University at Albany | Angerhausen D.,NASA
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific | Year: 2016

Planets emit thermal radiation and reflect incident light that they receive from their host stars. As a planet orbits its host star the photometric variations associated with these two effects produce very similar phase curves. If observed through only a single bandpass, this leads to a degeneracy between certain planetary parameters that hinder the precise characterization of such planets. However, observing the same planet through two different bandpasses gives much more information about the planet. Here we develop a Bayesian methodology for combining photometry from both Kepler and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. In addition, we demonstrate via simulations that one can disentangle the reflected and thermally emitted light from the atmosphere of a hot-Jupiter as well as more precisely constrain both the geometric albedo and day-side temperature of the planet. This methodology can further be employed using various combinations of photometry from the James Webb Space Telescope, the Characterizing ExOplanet Satellite, or the PLATO mission. © 2016. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific. All rights reserved.

Home > Press > Unraveling the crystal structure of a -70° Celsius superconductor, a world first: Significant advancement in the realization of room-temperature superconductors Abstract: For the first time in the world, a research group led by Osaka University, Japan, clarified the crystal structure of hydrogen sulfide in its superconducting phase at the high temperature of -70°C. This was achieved by conducting a combination of experiments at one of the world's largest synchrotron radiation facilities, SPring-8 in Japan. These results mark a huge step towards developing room-temperature superconductors, which may provide promising solutions to energy problems. Superconductivity is a phenomenon that occurs when the electrical resistance of materials reaches zero as they are cooled down to a certain temperature. While the possible scenarios for its use are manifold, such as using superconductors as energy transmission lines without energy loss, widespread use is difficult as costs for cooling are high. Last year, hydrogen sulfide set a new record for highest superconducting transition temperature under high pressure. However, its crystal structure, necessary for understanding its superconductivity mechanism, was not understood. A research group led by Prof. Katsuya Shimizu and Dr. Mari Einaga at the Center for Science and Technology Under Extreme Conditions, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, together with Dr. Mikhail Eremets at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, and Dr. Yasuo Ohishi at the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, has now succeeded in clarifying this structure by simultaneously conducting measurements of high pressure electrical resistance and X-ray diffraction. Since hydrogen sulfide consists of light elements, measurements required a special setup. Therefore, these measurements were conducted at the synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8, and consisted of using a diamond anvil cell to conduct measurement under high-pressure and low temperature, and the high-pressure beam line BL10XU with which high-intensity, high-energy and micro-diameter X-ray beams for X-ray diffraction can be used, in order to examine the material's crystal structure. The researchers clarified that under high pressure, H2S molecules underwent a structural change to H3S and that this H3S structure exhibited superconductivity. Furthermore, from simultaneously measuring changes in pressure of superconducting transition temperature, they discovered that H3S displayed two superconducting phases: one with a cubic structure, the other with a hexagonal structure. They thereby managed to prove previous predictions from theoretical calculations. The results of this study will contribute to clarifying the mechanisms of the high-temperature superconductivity observed in hydrogen sulfide. They also mark a considerable step in developing room-temperature superconductors and provide new insights that will be useful in the development of new materials that spread under high pressure. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

News Article | December 13, 2016

Former Texas Governor Rick Perry has reportedly been chosen by President-elect Donald Trump to be his energy secretary. The appointment, which was widely reported today, feeds the narrative about Trump nominees who are hostile to the mission of the agency they will be leading. But in Perry’s case, the multiple missions of the Department of Energy (DOE)—energy research, managing nuclear weapons, and environmental cleanup—warrant a closer look at that argument. Yes, Perry doesn’t accept the scientific consensus on the importance of reducing carbon emissions to slow the impact of human-induced climate change. And environmental groups have thus been quick to label him “unfit” to run the department, which spends more than $5 billion a year on energy research. But Texas is also the nation’s leading generator of wind power, a renewable technology that he promoted heavily during his 14 years in office. “He created an environment conducive to economic investment through robust infrastructure and competitive power markets that allowed new technologies to enter. The Texas model under Gov. Perry’s leadership enabled the growth of low-cost wind energy that made the grid more diverse and reliable while saving consumers money,” notes Tom Kiernan, CEO of the American Wind Energy Association in Washington, D.C., which lobbies for the wind industry. DOE’s renewable energy program is frequently a target of Republicans from oil and gas states. But Perry’s support for the technology may not actually represent a clash of political ideologies. “I found him to be interested in scientific research and technical innovation and to be willing to support investment in them,” says Larry Faulkner, a professor of chemistry and president emeritus of the University of Texas in Austin, whose term overlapped with Perry’s tenure as governor. “His interest was usually driven by the possibilities for economic opportunity for the state, which is not surprising for a governor.” A statement from the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), a liberal advocacy group based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, recognizes that tension. In addition to criticizing his stance on climate change, UCS President Ken Kemmell notes that “the Department of Energy has the critical responsibilities of maintaining our nuclear weapons stockpile and responsibly managing the resulting radioactive waste, tasks with which Governor Perry has little experience.” But Kemmell then goes on to praise Perry for the same activities that Kiernan applauded, adding that, “We hope that Governor Perry, as energy secretary, builds on the successful work currently underway at the agency in areas like grid modernization, energy efficiency, and clean energy finance.” Perry has earned the opprobrium of science educators for his comments on the importance of balancing evolution with creationist theory in Texas schools. And he’s appointed a series of chairs of the state board of education who embrace that view and also criticized science textbooks that discuss the negative impact of fossil fuels on the environment. Yet science education is a tiny $20 million slice of the department’s $30 billion budget. Yes, Perry is famous for forgetting the department’s name after saying in a debate with Republican opponents during his failed 2012 presidential campaign that it was one of three agencies he wanted to close. And for many environmental groups, Perry’s attitude is consistent with the new president’s plan to dismantle clean energy and climate programs, a shift that they plan to oppose vigorously. “It’s another example of the extended fight over climate and energy policy that will be waged by the new administration and Congress,” says David Goldston of the Natural Resources and Defense Council, an advocacy group based in Arlington, Virginia. Perry’s nomination, which has not been announced by the president-elect, comes in the midst of controversy over a questionnaire being circulated by Trump’s transition team for DOE. The 74 questions touch on programs across the agency’s diverse mission, from improving how to speed up commercialization of research at DOE’s 17 national labs to the statutory barriers preventing the long-delayed opening of a Nevada site to house nuclear waste. Although many of the questions are procedural, a few ask for personal information, such as the names of employees involved in climate negotiations or the professional societies to which lab scientists belong. DOE has said it will not provide some of that information. But the transition’s team approach has drawn comparisons with notorious political witch hunts of previous eras. If Perry does eventually lead DOE, researchers will be looking closely for any indication that the new administration is planning to weaken the department. It’s a simple question of what’s in the national interest, says political scientist David Hart of George Mason University (GMU) in Fairfax, Virginia. “I hope that Governor Perry, who is on record as favoring the abolition of the Department of Energy, will look carefully at what the Department actually does before he leaps to any conclusions as to what should be done about it,” says Hart, who directs GMU's Center for Science and Technology Policy. “Energy is a matter of sufficient national importance that it deserves representation in the Cabinet.” *Correction, 14 December, 9:10 a.m.: An earlier version of this story misquoted the CEO of the American Wind Energy Association. The story has been revised to include his actual statement. We apologize for the error.

Aittala P.J.,Tampere University of Technology | Cramariuc O.,Tampere University of Technology | Cramariuc O.,Center for Science and Technology | Hukka T.I.,Tampere University of Technology
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2011

The potential energy curves (PECs) of the Q, B, and the lowest charge transfer (CT) states of a porphine-2,5-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (PQ) complex have been studied by using the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with the CAM-B3LYP functional without and with the presence of an external electrostatic field. The PECs calculated using CAM-B3LYP with the original parameters α = 0.19, β = 0.65, and μ = 0.33 a0-1 are practically identical with those obtained using BH&HLYP. Applying of CAM-B3LYP with parameters α = 0.19, β = 0.81, and μ = 0.25 a0-1 yields PECs of the excited states that agree well with the PECs calculated previously using the CC2 method. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jayamohan J.,LBS Institute of Technology for Women | Mujeeb A.,Center for Science and Technology
2014 1st International Conference on Computational Systems and Communications, ICCSC 2014 | Year: 2014

Photoelasticity, an optical technique for experimental stress analysis, is widely used for 2-D and 3-D analysis of components for getting the information of principal stress difference and principal stress direction at every point in the domain. The recent developments in digital image processing have given birth to a separate branch of photoelasticity called digital photoelasticity. This method can be successfully employed to determine the stresses in structures with complicated shapes and loading. This paper gives a review of integrated photoelasticity and of its application for residual stress measurement in indeterminate structures. Significant reported methods on Photoelasticity for stress determination of indeterminate structures for the last 30 years has been analysed. © 2014 IEEE.

Athira U.,Center for Science and Technology | Thampi S.M.,Center for Science and Technology
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2015

Authorship analysis is the process of discerning the author of a document by reckoning the stylistic details that subsist in the document. The analysis attains significance in the area of forensic linguistics, where identification of author of forensic documents can be crucial evidence. The proposed method aims at attributing authorship of short texts by eliciting the idiosyncrasy using psycholinguistic aspects, morphological annotations and lexical features as style emblem. The traits so obtained are subjected to multiple classification and output predictions of multiple classifiers are amalgamated to obtain final judgment regarding authorship. The investigation in this regard culminated in the development of a technique that yields better results for authorship analysis in short texts, hence making it suitable for analysis of forensic documents. The proposed work exhibits an improved result in comparison with the predictions made by the state of the art methods. © 2015 ACM.

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