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Surendranagar, India

Bykerk V.P.,New York Medical College | Schoels M.M.,Center for Rheumatic Diseases
Current Opinion in Rheumatology | Year: 2013

Purpose of Review: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a potentially destructive disease with profound impact on patients' function and quality of life. Newer therapeutic agents have revolutionized outcomes but have not resulted in best outcomes for all patients. In this article, we will review recent progress in the development of strategies to enhance outcomes in patients with early RA (ERA). Recent Findings: Over the past 10 years, investigators have increasingly focused on additional means for improving long-term prognosis of patients with RA by examining the effect of different strategies to reach clinical targets reflecting optimal levels of disease control. In particular, it has become apparent that patients with ERA have the best chance to reach optimal outcomes, thus normalizing function, and halting radiographic damage. Studies show that strategies including treating to a target, computerizing targets, and combining clinical and biological or imaging targets for patients are enabling more patients to achieve remission, sustained remission, and even drug-free remission. Summary: Overall, the bar has been set higher in clinical research with the expectation that therapeutic approaches for all patients should be implemented to achieve high-level targeted outcomes. Studies evaluating the feasibility of implementing these in practice are needed to achieve this goal for all patients with ERA. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Smolen J.S.,Medical University of Vienna | Smolen J.S.,Center for Rheumatic Diseases | Aletaha D.,Medical University of Vienna
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2013

In this viewpoint, we summarise three different lines of evidence suggesting that current biological therapies directed at different molecules or cells have similar efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis and target similar populations of patients; therefore, distinct biological effects of targeted therapies may not account for differences in response. Moreover, currently available individual biomarkers or multiple biomarker sets do not provide information beyond that conveyed by clinical disease activity. Smart and novel research designs will have to be developed to find pertinent biomarkers. Until then, the focus of clinicians may have to solely rest on clinical disease activity assessment and targeting remission or low disease activity rapidly. Source

Watanabe N.,Center for Rheumatic Diseases | Nakajima H.,Chiba University
Clinical and Developmental Immunology | Year: 2012

Coinhibitory molecules such as CTLA-4, PD-1 and BTLA negatively regulate immune responses. Multiple studies indicate that the deficiency or mutation of coinhibitory molecules leads to the development of autoimmune diseases in mice and humans, indicating that the negative signals from coinhibitory molecules are crucial for the prevention of autoimmunity. In some conditions, the administration of decoy coinhibitory receptors (e.g., CTLA-4 Ig) or mAb against coinhibitory molecules suppresses the responses of self-reactive T cells in autoimmune diseases. Therefore, modulation of coinhibitory signals seems to be an attractive approach to induce tolerance in autoimmune diseases in humans where the disease-inducing self-antigens are not known. Particularly, administration of CTLA-4 Ig has shown great promise in animal models of autoimmune diseases and has been gaining increasing attention in clinical investigation in several autoimmune diseases in humans. © 2012 Norihiko Watanabe and Hiroshi Nakajima. Source

Bluml S.,Medical University of Vienna | Redlich K.,Medical University of Vienna | Smolen J.S.,Medical University of Vienna | Smolen J.S.,Center for Rheumatic Diseases
Seminars in Immunopathology | Year: 2014

The destruction of articular structures in the course of inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or seronegative spondyloarthropathies is the most serious direct consequence of these diseases. Indeed, joint damage constitutes the “organ damage” of RA and—just like in all other diseases with organ involvement—such damage will usually be irreversible, cause permanent loss of function and subsequent disability. Research has identified a number of mechanisms and mediators of damage to articular structures such as bone and cartilage, ranging from proinflammatory cytokines, signal transduction pathways and cells types, which will be discussed in this review. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Chopra A.,Center for Rheumatic Diseases
Indian Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2015

The maiden WHO ILAR COPCORD (community oriented program for control of rheumatic diseases) Bhigwan (1996-2014) demonstrated that musculoskeletal (MSK) pain was the commonest self-reported ailment in the community, soft tissue rheumatism, ill-defined MSK symptoms and osteoarthritis (OA) were the predominant disorders and about 10% cases suffered from inflammatory arthritis. The burden of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was high with point prevalence of 0.7%. Bone and joint decade (BJD) India conducted several standardized and uniform surveys (2004-2010) all over India and collected data from over 55,000 persons at 12 sites. The pooled age sex adjusted (India census population 2001) prevalence reported by the recent surveys was - RA (0.34), OA knees (3.34), undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis (0.22), Spondyloarthritis (0.23), ankylosing spondylitis (0.03), psoriatic arthritis (0.01) soft tissue rheumatism (1.39), gout (0.05) lupus (0.01); prevalence percent in parenthesis. Several forms of collagen vascular disorders and vasculitis are described in hospital based case series. Musculoskeletal infections including tuberculosis remain an important clinical burden. The 2006 India Chikungunya epidemic has put an additional burden of chronic MSK pain and arthritis. The recently launched national health programs pertaining to non-communicable diseases, rural and women health does not even mention rheumatic diseases thus there is urgent need to study the burden of rheumatic diseases and its impact on society. © 2015 Indian Rheumatology Association. All rights reserved. Source

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