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Williamson S.L.,Center for Rett Syndrome Research | Giudici L.,University of Insubria | Kilstrup-Nielsen C.,University of Insubria | Gold W.,Center for Rett Syndrome Research | And 9 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2012

The X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene is an important molecular determinant of early-onset intractable seizures with infantile spasms and Rett syndrome-like phenotype. The gene encodes a kinase that may influence components of molecular pathways associated with MeCP2. In humans there are two previously reported splice variants that differ in the 5′ untranslated exons and produce the same 115 kDa protein. Furthermore, very recently, a novel transcript including a novel exon (16b) has been described. By aligning both the human and mouse CDKL5 proteins to the orthologs of other species, we identified a theoretical 107 kDa isoform with an alternative C-terminus that terminates in intron 18. In human brain and all other tissues investigated except the testis, this novel isoform is the major CDKL5 transcript. The detailed characterisation of this novel isoform of CDKL5 reveals functional and subcellular localisation attributes that overlap greatly, but not completely, with that of the previously studied human CDKL5 protein. Considering its predominant expression in the human and mouse brain, we believe that this novel isoform is likely to be of primary pathogenic importance in human diseases associated with CDKL5 deficiency, and suggest that screening of the related intronic sequence should be included in the molecular genetic analyses of patients with a suggestive clinical phenotype. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Bebbington A.,University of Western Australia | Percy A.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Christodoulou J.,Center for Rett Syndrome Research | Christodoulou J.,University of Sydney | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2010

Objectives: This study aimed to compare the phenotype of Rett syndrome cases with C-terminal deletions to that of cases with different MECP2 mutations and to examine the phenotypic variation within C-terminal deletions. Methods: Cases were selected from InterRett, an international database and from the population-based Australian Rett Syndrome Database. Cases (n=832) were included if they had a pathogenic MECP2 mutation in which the nature of the amino acid change was known. Three severity scale systems were used, and individual aspects of the phenotype were also compared. Results: Lower severity was associated with C-terminal deletions (n=79) compared to all other MECP2 mutations (e.g. Pineda scale C-terminals mean 15.0 (95% CI 14.0-16.0) vs 16.2 (15.9-16.5). Cases with C-terminal deletions were more likely to have a normal head circumference (odds ratio 3.22, 95% CI 1.53 - 6.79) and weight (odds ratio 2.97, 95% CI 1.25-5.76). Onset of stereotypies tended to be later (median age 2.5 years vs 2 years, p<0.001 from survival analysis), and age of learning to walk tended to be earlier (median age 1.6 years vs 2 years, p=0.002 from survival analysis). Those with C-terminal deletions occurring later in the region had lower average severity scores than those occurring earlier in the region. Conclusion: In terms of overall severity C-terminal deletion cases would appear to be in the middle of the range. In terms of individual aspects of phenotype growth and ability to ambulate appear to be particular strengths. By pooling data internationally this study has achieved the case numbers to provide a phenotypic profile of C-terminal deletions in Rett syndrome.

Gold W.A.,Center for Rett Syndrome Research | Gold W.A.,University of Sydney | Lacina T.A.,Mannheim University of Applied Sciences | Cantrill L.C.,University of Sydney | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2014

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, predominantly caused by loss of functionmutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Despite the genetic cause being known in the majority of cases, the pathophysiology of the neurological phenotype of RTT is largely unknown. Tubulin and the microtubule network play an essential role in neuronal function whereby the acetylation state of microtubules dictates the efficiency of neuronal migration and differentiation, synaptic targeting and molecular motor trafficking of mRNA, high-energy mitochondria and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)- containing vesicles. Recent reports have shown perturbations in tubulin and microtubule dynamics in MeCP2-deficient cells, suggesting a link between the aberrations of these cellular entities and the neurobiology of RTT. We have interrogated the functional state of the microtubule network in fibroblasts derived from two patients with RTT as well as cortical neurons from a RTT mouse model and observed a reduction in acetylated α-tubulin and an increase in the tubulin-specific deacetylase, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). Furthermore, we show that inhibition of HDAC6 by Tubastatin A can restore tubulin acetylation levels.We also demonstrate microtubule instability in the RTT patient fibroblasts in response to nocodazole, which is progressively ameliorated in a mutation-dependent manner by Tubastatin A.We conclude that Tubastatin A is capable of counteracting the microtubule defects observed in MeCP2-deficient cells,which could in turn lead to the restoration of molecular trafficking along the microtubules and thus could be a potentially new therapeutic option for RTT. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.

Williamson S.L.,Center for Rett Syndrome Research | Ellaway C.J.,Center for Rett Syndrome Research | Ellaway C.J.,University of Sydney | Peters G.B.,University of Sydney | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2015

Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder that predominantly affects females, is primarily caused by variants in MECP2. Variants in other genes such as CDKL5 and FOXG1 are usually associated with individuals who manifest distinct phenotypes that may overlap with RTT. Individuals with phenotypes suggestive of RTT are typically screened for variants in MECP2 and then subsequently the other genes dependent on the specific phenotype. Even with this screening strategy, there are individuals in whom no causative variant can be identified, suggesting that there are other novel genes that contribute to the RTT phenotype. Here we report a de novo deletion of protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 4 (PTPN4) in identical twins with a RTT-like phenotype. We also demonstrate the reduced expression of Ptpn4 in a Mecp2 null mouse model of RTT, as well as the activation of the PTPN4 promoter by MeCP2. Our findings suggest that PTPN4 should be considered for addition to the growing list of genes that warrant screening in individuals with a RTT-like phenotype. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Gold W.A.,Center for Rett Syndrome Research | Gold W.A.,University of Sydney | Williamson S.L.,Center for Rett Syndrome Research | Kaur S.,Center for Rett Syndrome Research | And 7 more authors.
Mitochondrion | Year: 2014

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, predominantly caused by mutations in the X-linked Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Patients present with numerous functional deficits including intellectual disability and abnormalities of movement. Clinical and biochemical features may overlap with those seen in patients with primary mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders. In the late stages of the disorder, patients suffer from motor deterioration and usually require assisted mobility. Using a mouse model of RTT (Mecp2tm1Tam), we studied the mitochondrial function in the hind-limb skeletal muscle of these mice. We identified a reduction in cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (MTCO1) at both the transcript and protein level, in accordance with our previous findings in RTT patient brain studies. Mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) enzyme activity of complexes II. +. III (COII. +. III) and complex IV (COIV), and glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly reduced in symptomatic mice, but not in the pre-symptomatic mice. Our findings suggest that mitochondrial abnormalities in the skeletal muscle may contribute to the progressive deterioration in mobility in RTT through the accumulation of free radicals, as evidenced by the decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH). We hypothesise that a diminution in GSH leads to an accumulation of free radicals and an increase in oxidative stress. This may impact on respiratory chain function and contribute in part to the progressive neurological and motor deterioration seen in the Mecp2-mutant mouse. Treatment strategies aimed at restoring cellular GSH levels may prove to be a novel target area to consider in future approaches to RTT therapies. © 2014 © Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society.

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