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Ouda R.,Kyoto University | Onomoto K.,Kyoto University | Takahasi K.,Kyoto University | Edwards M.R.,Imperial College London | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011

In mammals, viral infections are detected by innate immune receptors, including Toll-like receptor and retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR), which activate the type I interferon (IFN) system. IFN essentially activates genes encoding antiviral proteins that inhibit various steps of viral replication as well as facilitate the subsequent activation of acquired immune responses. In this study, we investigated the expression of non-coding RNA upon viral infection or RLR activation. Using a microarray, we identified several microRNAs (miRNA) specifically induced to express by RLR signaling. As suggested by Bioinformatics (miRBase Target Data base), one of the RLR-inducible miRNAs, miR-23b, actually knocked down the expression of very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) and LDLR-related protein 5 (LRP5). Transfection of miR-23b specifically inhibited infection of rhinovirus 1B (RV1B), which utilizes the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family for viral entry. Conversely, introduction of anti-miRNA-23b enhanced the viral yield. Knockdown experiments using small interfering RNA (siRNA) revealed that VLDLR, but not LRP5, is critical for an efficient infection by RV1B. Furthermore, experiments with the transfection of infectious viral RNA revealed that miR-23b did not affect post-entry viral replication. Our results strongly suggest that RIG-I signaling results in the inhibitions of infections of RV1B through the miR-23b-mediated down-regulation of its receptor VLDLR. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Molyneaux P.L.,Imperial College London | Molyneaux P.L.,Center for Respiratory Infection | Mallia P.,Imperial College London | Mallia P.,Center for Respiratory Infection | And 17 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2013

Rationale: Rhinovirus infection is followed by significantly increased frequencies of positive, potentially pathogenic sputum cultures in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it remains unclear whether these represent de novo infections or an increased load of organisms from the complex microbial communities (microbiome) in the lower airways. Objectives: To investigate the effect of rhinovirus infection on the airway bacterial microbiome. Methods: Subjects with COPD (n = 14) and healthy control subjects with normal lung function (n = 17) were infected with rhinovirus. Induced sputum was collected at baseline before rhinovirus inoculation and again on Days 5, 15, and 42 after rhinovirus infection and DNAwas extracted. The V3-V5 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified and pyrosequenced, resulting in 370,849 high-quality reads from 112 of the possible 124 time points. Measurements and Main Results: At 15 days after rhinovirus infection, there was a sixfold increase in 16S copy number (P = 0.007) and a 16% rise in numbers of proteobacterial sequences, most notably in potentially pathogenic Haemophilus influenzae (P = 2.7 × 10-20), from a preexisting community. These changes occurred only in the sputum microbiome of subjects with COPD and were still evident 42 days after infection. This was in contrast to the temporal stability demonstrated in the microbiome of healthy smokers and nonsmokers. Conclusions: After rhinovirus infection, there is a rise in bacterial burden and a significant outgrowth of Haemophilus influenzae from the existing microbiota of subjects with COPD. This is not observed in healthy individuals. Our findings suggest that rhinovirus infection in COPD alters the respiratory microbiome and may precipitate secondary bacterial infections. Copyright © 2013 by the American Thoracic Society.


Sykes A.,Imperial College London | Sykes A.,and Asthma Center in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma | Sykes A.,Center for Respiratory Infection | Macintyre J.,Imperial College London | And 19 more authors.
Thorax | Year: 2014

Background Defective rhinovirus (RV)-induced interferon (IFN)-β and IFN-λ, production and increased RV replication have been reported in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) from subjects with asthma. How universal this defect is in asthma is unknown. Additionally, the IFN subtypes induced by RV infection in primary HBECs have not been comprehensively investigated. Objective To study RV induction of IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-λ, and RV replication in HBECs from subjects with atopic asthma and healthy controls. Methods HBECs were obtained from subjects with asthma and healthy controls and infected with RV16 and RV1B, and cells and supernatants harvested at 8, 24 and 48h. IFN proteins were analysed by ELISA and IFN mRNA and viral RNA expression by quantitative PCR. Virus release was assessed in cell supernatants. Results IFN-β and IFN-λ, were the only IFNs induced by RV in HBECs and IFN-λ, protein induction was substantially greater than IFN-β. Induction of IFN-λ1 mRNA by RV16 at 48h was significantly greater in HBECs from subjects with asthma; otherwise there were no significant differences between subjects with asthma and controls in RV replication, or in induction of type I or III IFN protein or mRNA. Conclusions: IFN-λ and, to a lesser degree, IFN-β are the major IFN subtypes induced by RV infection of HBECs. Neither defective IFN induction by RV nor increased RV replication was observed in the HBECs from subjects with well controlled asthma reported in this study.


Sykes A.,Imperial College London | Sykes A.,and Asthma Center in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma | Sykes A.,Center for Respiratory Infection | Edwards M.R.,Imperial College London | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2012

Background: Asthmatic patients have defective rhinovirus-induced IFN-β and IFN-λ production from bronchial epithelial cells and IFN-λ from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells. Whether bronchoalveolar lavage cells have defective type I interferon responses to rhinovirus is unknown, as are mechanisms explaining defective rhinovirus interferon induction in asthmatic patients. Objective: We sought to investigate rhinovirus induction of type I interferons in BAL and blood mononuclear cells from asthmatic patients and healthy subjects and to investigate mechanisms of any deficiency observed. Methods: BAL and blood mononuclear cells from atopic asthmatic patients and healthy subjects were infected with rhinovirus ex vivo. Interferon proteins were analyzed by using ELISA. mRNA expression of key components of interferon induction pathways were analyzed by using quantitative PCR. Results: Rhinovirus induction of type I interferon protein was delayed and deficient in BAL cells from asthmatic patients, and lower interferon levels were associated with greater airway hyperresponsiveness and skin prick test response positivity. Expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3, TLR7, TLR8, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5), TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β (TRIF), myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), caspase recruitment domain adaptor inducing IFN-β (CARDIF), IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4), IκB kinase β (IKKB), IκB kinase ι (IKKI), interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7, and rhinovirus induction of expression of the virus-inducible molecules TLR3, TLR7, RIG-I, and MDA-5 were not impaired in these interferon-deficient BAL cells in asthmatic patients. Defective rhinovirus interferon induction was not observed in blood mononuclear cells. Conclusions: Rhinovirus induction of type I interferons in BAL cells is delayed and deficient and might be a marker of more severe asthma. Defective rhinovirus interferon induction in asthmatic patients was not accompanied by differences in the expression or induction of key molecules implicated in viral induction of interferons. © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.


Wong E.H.C.,Imperial College London | Wong E.H.C.,and Asthma Center | Wong E.H.C.,Center for Respiratory Infection | Porter J.D.,Imperial College London | And 8 more authors.
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2014

Macrolides, such as clarithromycin and azithromycin, possess antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and potential antiviral properties. They represent a potential therapeutic option for asthma, a chronic inflammatory disorder characterised by airway hyper-responsiveness that leads to recurrent episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing. Results from clinical trials, however, have been contentious. The findings could be confounded by many factors, including the heterogeneity of asthma, treatment duration, dose, and differing outcome measures. Recent evidence suggests improved effectiveness of macrolides in patients with sub-optimally controlled severe neutrophilic asthma and in asthma exacerbations. We examine the evidence from clinical trials and discuss macrolide properties and their relevance to the pathophysiology of asthma. At present, the use of macrolides in chronic asthma or acute exacerbations is not justified. Further work, including proteomic, genomic, and microbiome studies, will advance our knowledge of asthma phenotypes, and help to identify a macrolide-responsive subgroup. Future clinical trials should target this subgroup and place emphasis on clinically relevant outcomes such as asthma exacerbations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Mallia P.,Imperial College London | Mallia P.,Center for Respiratory Infection | Footitt J.,Imperial College London | Footitt J.,Center for Respiratory Infection | And 22 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2012

Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are associated with virus (mostly rhinovirus) and bacterial infections, but it is not known whether rhinovirus infections precipitate secondary bacterial infections. Objectives: To investigate relationships between rhinovirus infection and bacterial infection and the role of antimicrobial peptides in COPD exacerbations. Methods: We infected subjects with moderate COPD and smokers and nonsmokers with normal lung function with rhinovirus. Induced sputum was collected before and repeatedly after rhinovirus infection and virus and bacterial loads measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and culture. The antimicrobial peptides secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), elafin, pentraxin, LL-37, α-defensins and β-defensin-2, and the protease neutrophil elastase were measured in sputum supernatants. Measurements and Main Results: After rhinovirus infection, secondary bacterial infection was detected in 60% of subjects with COPD, 9.5% of smokers, and 10% of nonsmokers (P < 0.001). Sputum virus load peaked on Days 5-9 and bacterial load on Day 15. Sputum neutrophil elastase was significantly increased and SLPI and elafin significantly reduced after rhinovirus infection exclusively in subjects with COPD with secondary bacterial infections, and SLPI and elafin levels correlated inversely with bacterial load. Conclusions: Rhinovirus infections are frequently followed by secondary bacterial infections in COPD and cleavage of the antimicrobial peptides SLPI and elafin by virus-induced neutrophil elastase may precipitate these secondary bacterial infections. Therapy targeting neutrophil elastase or enhancing innate immunity may be useful novel therapies for prevention of secondary bacterial infections in virus-induced COPD exacerbations.


Slater L.,Imperial College London | Slater L.,and Asthma Center in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma | Slater L.,Center for Respiratory Infection | Bartlett N.W.,Imperial College London | And 28 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2010

The relative roles of the endosomal TLR3/7/8 versus the intracellular RNA helicases RIG-I and MDA5 in viral infection is much debated. We investigated the roles of each pattern recognition receptor in rhinovirus infection using primary bronchial epithelial cells. TLR3 was constitutively expressed; however, RIG-I and MDA5 were inducible by 8-12 h following rhinovirus infection. Bronchial epithelial tissue from normal volunteers challenged with rhinovirus in vivo exhibited low levels of RIG-I and MDA5 that were increased at day 4 post infection. Inhibition of TLR3, RIG-I and MDA5 by siRNA reduced innate cytokine mRNA, and increased rhinovirus replication. Inhibition of TLR3 and TRIF using siRNA reduced rhinovirus induced RNA helicases. Furthermore, IFNAR1 deficient mice exhibited RIG-I and MDA5 induction early during RV1B infection in an interferon independent manner. Hence anti-viral defense within bronchial epithelium requires co-ordinated recognition of rhinovirus infection, initially via TLR3/TRIF and later via inducible RNA helicases. © 2010 Slater et al.

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