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Fernandez M.F.,University of Granada | Fernandez M.F.,CIBER ISCIII | Parera J.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Arrebola J.P.,University of Granada | And 13 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

Because fetuses are considered significantly more sensitive to various environment toxicants, there is a need for continuous biomonitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs (DL-PCBs) to assess their impact on this susceptible population. The aim of this study was to assess the concentration of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in placenta samples from women participating in the Spanish Environment and Childhood (INMA) birth cohort study and to evaluate whether maternal and child characteristics predict placenta concentrations of these pollutants. The presence of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs was investigated in 50 placenta samples selected at random in the recruitment period 2000-2008. Multivariable regression models were constructed. Mothers had a mean age at delivery of 30.7years (18.0-38.0years), pre-pregnancy BMI of 23.3kg/m2 (18.0-40.2kg/m2), and 31% were smokers. Median total concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 6.9pgWHO-TEQ/g lipid and 2.1pgWHO-TEQ/g lipid, respectively. In comparison to the few previous studies in placenta, total TEQ levels were among the lowest recorded in comparable general populations. The congener distribution pattern and the frequencies and concentrations of PCDD/F and DL-PCB congeners were similar to previous reports in placenta. PCDD/F and DL-PCB exposure was related to the age of the mother and the year of the delivery. Although placental concentrations cannot be considered wholly appropriate predictors for evaluating fetal exposure to these contaminants, they can provide a good indication of both maternal and infant prenatal and postnatal exposure and can be used as a proxy for fetal exposure. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Llop S.,CIBER ISCIII | Guxens M.,CIBER ISCIII | Guxens M.,Center for Research of Environmental Epidemiology | Guxens M.,Municipal Institute of Medical Research IMIM Hospital Del Mar | And 16 more authors.
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Vulnerability of the central nervous system to mercury is increased during early development. This study aimed to evaluate whether cord blood total mercury levels may have a negative effect on both mental and psychomotor development in a maternal-birth cohort from moderate-high fish consumption areas. Study subjects were 1,683 child participants in the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Project from 4 areas of Spain between 2003 and 2010. Cord blood total mercury levels were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Infant neurodevelopment was assessed around age 14 months by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary information was obtained by questionnaire during pregnancy. The geometric mean of total mercury levels was 8.4 μg/L (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.1, 8.7). In multivariate analysis, a doubling in total mercury levels did not show an association with mental (β = 0.1, 95% CI: -0.68, 0.88) or psychomotor (β = -0.05, 95% CI: -0.79, 0.68) developmental delay; however, stratified findings by sex suggest a negative association between prenatal exposure to total mercury and psychomotor development among female infants (β = -1.09, 95% CI: -2.21, 0.03), although follow-up is required to confirm these results. © The Author 2012. Source


Iniguez C.,CIBER ISCIII | Iniguez C.,University of Valencia | Ballester F.,CIBER ISCIII | Ballester F.,University of Valencia | And 13 more authors.
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2013

In utero tobacco exposure has been associated with fetal growth restriction, but uncertainty remains about critical windows of exposure and specific effects on body segments. In the present study, we aimed to examine the association of maternal smoking with fetal biometry in different stages of pregnancy. The study population comprised 2,478 fetuses from a Spanish birth cohort study that was established between 2003 and 2008. Biparietal diameter, femur length, abdominal circumference, and estimated fetal weight were evaluated at 12, 20, and 34 weeks of gestation. Fetal size and growth were assessed by standard deviation scores adjusted by maternal and fetal characteristics. Maternal smoking was assessed using questionnaire and a sample of urinary cotinine at week 32 of gestation. Associations were estimated using multiple regression analysis. Smokers at week 12 of gestation showed decreased fetal growth as reflected by all growth parameters at 20-34 weeks, leading to a reduced fetal size at week 34. The reduction was greatest in femur length, at -9.4% (95% confidence interval -13.4, -5.4) and least in abdominal circumference, at -4.4% (95% CI: -8.7, -0.1). Fetuses of smokers who quit smoking before week 12 showed reduced growth only in femur length (-5.5; 95% CI: -10.1, -0.9). Dose-response curves for smoking versus fetal growth parameters (abscissa: log2 cotinine) were linear for biparietal diameter and femur length. © 2013 © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com. Source


Llop S.,Carlos III Health Institute ISCIII | Llop S.,CIBER ISCIII | Aguinagalde X.,11 Health | Vioque J.,CIBER ISCIII | And 21 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011

Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2 μg/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 μg/dL and 19 μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

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