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Dadvand P.,Northumbria University | Dadvand P.,Center For Research In Environmental Epidemiology Creal | Rankin J.,Northumbria University | Rushton S.,Northumbria University | Pless-Mulloli T.,Northumbria University
Environmental Research | Year: 2011

Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution has increasingly been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. The evidence linking this exposure to congenital anomalies is still limited and controversial. This case-control study investigated the association between maternal exposure to ambient particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10γm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) and the occurrence of congenital heart disease in the population of Northeast England (1993-2003). Each case and control was assigned weekly average (weeks 3-8 of pregnancy) of pollutant levels measured by the closest monitor to the mother's residential postcode. Using exposure as both continuous and categorical variables, logistic regression models were constructed to quantify the adjusted odds ratios of exposure to air pollutants and the occurrence of each outcome group. We found exposure to CO and NO to be associated with ventricular septal defect and cardiac septa malformations. CO was also associated with congenital pulmonary valve stenosis and NO with pooled cases of congenital heart disease and tetralogy of Fallot. Findings for SO2, O3 and PM10 were less consistent. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Lourencetti C.,Jordi Girona | Grimalt J.O.,Jordi Girona | Marco E.,Jordi Girona | Fernandez P.,Jordi Girona | And 3 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2012

This first study of trihalomethanes (THMs) in swimming pools using bromine agents for water disinfection under real conditions shows that the mixtures of these compounds are largely dominated by bromoform in a similar process as chloroform becomes the dominant THM in pools disinfected with chlorine agents. Bromoform largely predominates in air and water of the pool installations whose concentration changes are linearly correlated. However, the air concentrations of bromoform account for about 6-11% of the expected concentrations according to theoretical partitioning defined by the Henry law. Bromoform in exhaled air of swimmers is correlated with the air concentrations of this disinfectant by-product in the pool building. Comparison of the THM exhaled air concentrations between swimmers and volunteers bathing in the water without swimming or standing in the building outside the water suggest that physical activity enhance exposure to these disinfectant by-products. They also indicate that in swimming pools, besides inhalation, dermal absorption is a relevant route for the incorporation of THMs, particularly those with lower degree of bromination. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Marco E.,Jordi Girona | Lourencetti C.,Jordi Girona | Grimalt J.O.,Jordi Girona | Gari M.,Jordi Girona | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2015

This study describes the relationship between physical activity and intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform (CHCl3), bromodichloromethane (CHCl2Br), dibromochloromethane (CHClBr2) and bromoform (CHBr3), in individuals exposed in two indoor swimming pools which used different disinfection agents, chlorine (Cl-SP) and bromine (Br-SP). CHCl3 and CHBr3 were the dominant compounds in air and water of the Cl-SP and Br-SP, respectively. Physical exercise was assessed from distance swum and energy expenditure. The changes in exhaled breath concentrations of these compounds were measured from the differences after and before physical activity.A clear dependence between distance swum or energy expenditure and exhaled breath THM concentrations was observed. The statistically significant relationships involved higher THM concentrations at higher distances swum. However, air concentration was the major factor determining the CHCl3 and CHCl2Br intake in swimmers whereas distance swum was the main factor for CHBr3 intake. These two causes of THM incorporation into swimmers concurrently intensify the concentrations of these compounds into exhaled breath and pointed to inhalation as primary mechanism for THM uptake. Furthermore, the rates of THM incorporation were proportionally higher as higher was the degree of bromination of the THM species. This trend suggested that air-water partition mechanisms in the pulmonary system determined higher retention of the THM compounds with lower Henry's Law volatility constants than those of higher constant values. Inhalation is therefore the primary mechanisms for THM exposure of swimmers in indoor buildings. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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