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Fuentes A.,University of Notre Dame | Hockings K.J.,New University of Lisbon | Hockings K.J.,Center for Research in Anthropology | Hockings K.J.,University of Stirling
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2010

Recent and long-term sympatries between humans and nonhuman primates (hereafter primates) are central to the behavioral ecology, conservation, and evolutionary trajectories of numerous primate species. Ethnoprimatology emphasizes that interconnections between humans and primates should be viewed as more than just disruptions of a "natural" state, and instead anthropogenic contexts must be considered as potential drivers for specific primate behavioral patterns. Rather than focusing solely on the behavior and ecology of the primate species at hand, as in traditional primatology, or on the symbolic meanings and uses of primates, as in socio-cultural anthropology, ethnoprimatology attempts to merge these perspectives into a more integrative approach. As human pressures on environments continue to increase and primate habitats become smaller and more fragmented, the need for a primatology that considers the impact of human attitudes and behavior on all aspects of primate lives and survival is imperative. In this special issue, we present both data-driven examples and more general discussions that describe how ethnoprimatological approaches can be both a contribution to the core theory and practice of primatology and a powerful tool in our goal of conservation action. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Hockings K.J.,New University of Lisbon | Hockings K.J.,Center for Research in Anthropology | Hockings K.J.,University of Stirling | Anderson J.R.,University of Stirling | Matsuzawa T.,Kyoto University
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2010

It has been proposed that exploitation of underground storage organs (USOs) played an important role in the evolution of the genus Homo, these items serving as 'fallback foods' during periods of low food availability. The use of USOs as food by wild chimpanzees is infrequent and seen mostly in populations inhabiting relatively arid environments, such as the savanna. Here, we specifically test the hypothesis that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) inhabiting tropical wet forest at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa) exploit USOs as a fallback food during periods of fruit scarcity. Chimpanzees were never observed feeding on wild USOs, that is, those that were never cultivated, and rarely on other underground plant parts. However, direct observations revealed regular consumption of the USOs of cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta), a spatially abundant and continuously available plant, although the chimpanzees did not use tools when acquiring and feeding on cassava. In agreement with the fallback foods hypothesis, our results show that chimpanzees exploited cassava USOs more frequently when both wild and cultivated fruits were scarce, and consumption patterns of cassava paralleled those of wild fallback foods. These seasonal extractive USO foraging strategies by chimpanzees can strengthen attempts to construct a clearer picture of the importance of USO feeding in hominoid evolution. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hockings K.J.,New University of Lisbon | Hockings K.J.,Center for Research in Anthropology | Hockings K.J.,University of Stirling | Yamakoshi G.,Kyoto University | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2010

Attacks on humans by nonhuman primates are one of the most serious causes of human-primate conflict, and strongly influence people's perceptions and tolerance of nonhuman primates. Despite their importance, systematic and extensive records of such attacks are rare. Here, we report the attacks that occurred on local persons by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou, Republic of Guinea, from 1995 to 2009. There have been a total of 11 attacks during this period, the majority of which were directed toward children. They varied in their severity, but all were nonfatal. Attacks took place on a road and narrow paths that bordered the forest or in cultivated fields and orchards where opportunities for human-chimpanzee contact are high. Attacks occurred between the months of March and October, coinciding with wild fruit scarcity, increased levels of crop-raiding, and periods of human cultivation with likely increased human usage of paths. Although the families of attack victims felt angry and fearful toward chimpanzees after attacks, some drew on their traditional beliefs to explain why chimpanzees were respected, protected, and could not hurt them, even when attacks occurred. We provide suggestions for reducing future nonhuman primate attacks on humans in an effort to mitigate human-primate conflict situations. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Cardoso F.A.,Center for Research in Anthropology | Henderson C.Y.,Durham University
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2010

Enthesopathies, in the guise of musculoskeletal skeletal stress markers (MSM), have been widely used to reconstruct activity levels in human skeletal populations. In general, studies have focused on their presence in the upper limb, which is used in the majority of daily activities. The aim of this study was to use some of the attachment sites on the humerus to explore the relationship between enthesopathy formation, activity, and the ageing process. The skeletal sample used in this study comprised male adult skeletons with known age-at-death and known occupations from the late-19th and early-20th century cemeteries in Portugal. The enthesopathies were recorded as either present or absent. Statistical analysis using Fishers exact tests and logistic regression was undertaken to determine whether associations could be found between specific activities or socioeconomic status (manual or nonmanual workers), and age and enthesopathy presence. Left and right sides were analyzed separately. Fisher's exact tests were used to determine the relationship between activity and enthesopathy, and they demonstrated no association between activity and enthesopathies (P > 0.01). The results of the logistic regression established that age was the single most significant factor in enthesopathy formation (P > 0.05). This study found that, in these samples, age-at-death, and therefore age-related degeneration rather than degeneration caused by activities, was the primary cause of enthesopathy formation. Considering the difficulties of reliably ageing adult human skeletal remains, this is a major issue for studies of activity using enthesopathies. Am J Phys Anthropol 141:550-560, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Escuriet R.,University Pompeu Fabra | Pueyo M.,Directorate General for Health Planning and Research | Biescas H.,Directorate General for Health Planning and Research | Colls C.,Catalan Agency for Health Information | And 6 more authors.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2014

Background: Childbirth assistance in highly technological settings and existing variability in the interventions performed are cause for concern. In recent years, numerous recommendations have been made concerning the importance of the physiological process during birth. In Spain and Catalonia, work has been carried out to implement evidence-based practices for childbirth and to reduce unnecessary interventions. To identify obstetric intervention rates among all births, determine whether there are differences in interventions among full-term single births taking place in different hospitals according to type of funding and volume of births attended to, and to ascertain whether there is an association between caesarean section or instrumental birth rates and type of funding, the volume of births attended to and women's age. Methods: Cross-sectional study, taking the hospital as the unit of analysis, obstetric interventions as dependent variables, and type of funding, volume of births attended to and maternal age as explanatory variables. The analysis was performed in three phases considering all births reported in the MBDS Catalonia 2011 (7,8570 births), full-term single births and births coded as normal. Results: The overall caesarean section rate in Catalonia is 27.55% (CI 27.23 to 27.86). There is a significant difference in caesarean section rates between public and private hospitals in all strata. Both public and private hospitals with a lower volume of births have higher obstetric intervention rates than other hospitals (49.43%, CI 48.04 to 50.81). Conclusions: In hospitals in Catalonia, both the type of funding and volume of births attended to have a significant effect on the incidence of caesarean section, and type of funding is associated with the use of instruments during delivery. © 2014 Escuriet et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Hockings K.J.,New University of Lisbon | Hockings K.J.,Center for Research in Anthropology | Hockings K.J.,Oxford Brookes University | Sousa C.,New University of Lisbon | Sousa C.,Center for Research in Anthropology
Primate Conservation | Year: 2013

Increasing human populations and the rapid conversion of forest to agricultural land increase the likelihood of interactions and conflict between humans and nonhuman primates. Understanding such interactions requires a broad cross-disciplinary approach that assesses the implications of sympatry for primate conservation and human social, cultural and economic needs. Although chimpanzees were declared extinct in Guinea-Bissau in 1988, recent reports estimate that between 600 and 1,000 individuals are currently present, with the largest population occupying the Cantanhez National Park (105,700 ha; northeast limit: 11°22′58″N,14°46′12″W; southwest limit: 11°2′18″N,15°15′58″W). These heavily fragmented coastal forests have been identified as one of seven priority areas in West Africa for urgent chimpanzee conservation efforts (Kormos et al. 2003. West African Chimpanzees. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland. 2003). Here we set the context for human-chimpanzee sympatry in Guinea-Bissau, and provide a platform from which further studies can expand. We review past findings that might affect current and future sympatric relationships, and integrate preliminary data on resource competition from one hitherto unstudied chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) community inhabiting a forested-agricultural matrix in Caiquene and Cadique, central Cantanhez National Park. While local human cultural traditions provide a degree of tolerance and protection to chimpanzees in Cantanhez National Park, which is beneficial for long-term conservation initiatives, human-chimpanzee interactions have the potential to grow increasingly negative in character, especially as human populations expand and further pressure is exerted on the land.


McLennan M.R.,Oxford Brookes University | Hockings K.J.,Oxford Brookes University | Hockings K.J.,Center for Research in Anthropology
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014

The ability of wild animals to respond flexibly to anthropogenic environmental changes, including agriculture, is critical to survival in human-impacted habitats. Understanding use of human foods by wildlife can shed light on the acquisition of novel feeding habits and how animals respond to human-driven land-use changes. Little attention has focused on within-species variation in use of human foods or its causes. We examined crop-feeding in two groups of wild chimpanzees-a specialist frugivore-with differing histories of exposure to agriculture. Both groups exploited a variety of crops, with more accessible crops consumed most frequently. However, crop selection by chimpanzees with long-term exposure to agriculture was more omnivorous (i.e., less fruit-biased) compared to those with more recent exposure, which ignored most non-fruit crops. Our results suggest chimpanzees show increased foraging adaptations to cultivated landscapes over time; however, local feeding traditions may also contribute to group differences in crop-feeding in this species. Understanding the dynamic responses of wildlife to agriculture can help predict current and future adaptability of species to fast-changing anthropogenic landscapes.


Hockings K.J.,New University of Lisbon | Hockings K.J.,Center for Research in Anthropology | Hockings K.J.,Oxford Brookes University | McLennan M.R.,Oxford Brookes University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Crop-raiding is a major source of conflict between people and wildlife globally, impacting local livelihoods and impeding conservation. Conflict mitigation strategies that target problematic wildlife behaviours such as crop-raiding are notoriously difficult to develop for large-bodied, cognitively complex species. Many crop-raiders are generalist feeders. In more ecologically specialised species crop-type selection is not random and evidence-based management requires a good understanding of species' ecology and crop feeding habits. Comprehensive species-wide studies of crop consumption by endangered wildlife are lacking but are important for managing human-wildlife conflict. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of crop feeding records by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a ripe-fruit specialist. We assessed quantitatively patterns of crop selection in relation to species-specific feeding behaviour, agricultural exposure, and crop availability. Crop consumption by chimpanzees is widespread in tropical Africa. Chimpanzees were recorded to eat a considerable range of cultivars (51 plant parts from 36 species). Crop part selection reflected a species-typical preference for fruit. Crops widely distributed in chimpanzee range countries were eaten at more sites than sparsely distributed crops. We identified 'high' and 'low' conflict crops according to their attractiveness to chimpanzees, taking account of their importance as cash crops and/or staple foods to people. Most (86%) high conflict crops were fruits, compared to 13% of low conflict crops. Some widely farmed cash or staple crops were seldom or never eaten by chimpanzees. Information about which crops are most frequently consumed and which are ignored has enormous potential for aiding on-the-ground stakeholders (i.e. farmers, wildlife managers, and conservation and agricultural extension practitioners) develop sustainable wildlife management schemes for ecologically specialised and protected species in anthropogenic habitats. However, the economic and subsistence needs of local people, and the crop-raiding behaviour of sympatric wildlife, must be considered when assessing suitability of particular crops for conflict prevention and mitigation. © 2012 Hockings, McLennan.


PubMed | Center for Research in Anthropology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of primatology | Year: 2015

With rising conversion of natural habitat to other land use such as agriculture, nonhuman primates are increasingly exploiting areas influenced by people and their activities. Despite the conservation importance of understanding the ways in which primates modify their behavior to human pressures, data are lacking, even for well-studied species. Using systematically collected data (fecal samples, feeding traces, and direct observations), we examined the diet and feeding strategies of an unhabituated chimpanzee community (Pan troglodytes verus) at Caiquene-Cadique in Guinea-Bissau that inhabit a forest-savanna-mangrove-agricultural mosaic. The chimpanzees experienced marked seasonal variations in the availability of plant foods, but maintained a high proportion of ripe fruit in the diet across months. Certain wild species were identified as important to this community including oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit and flower. Honey was frequently consumed but no other insects or vertebrates were confirmed to be eaten by this community. However, we provide indirect evidence of possible smashing and consumption of giant African snails (Achatina sp.) by chimpanzees at this site. Caiquene-Cadique chimpanzees were confirmed to feed on nine different agricultural crops, which represented 13.6% of all plant species consumed. Consumption of fruit and nonfruit crops was regular, but did not increase during periods of wild fruit scarcity. Crop consumption is an increasing and potentially problematic behavior, which can impact local peoples tolerance toward wildlife. To maximize the potential success of any human-wildlife coexistence strategy (e.g., to reduce primate crop feeding), knowledge of primate behavior, as well as multifaceted social dimensions of interactions, is critical.


Silva L.,Center for Research in Anthropology
Landscape Research | Year: 2015

This article focuses on the use of governmentality as a technique of government and its effects, with reference to a protected landscape. Drawing on ethnographic materials from the Azores, it demonstrates that governmentality is not always practised by governments in the way it is meant to be. Although the state’s conservation efforts in Sete Cidades meet the accepted criteria of a governmental programme, they do not transform local subjectivities as intended. The protected landscape of Sete Cidades is a government initiative, but also a tool used strategically by certain social groups living and working within this landscape to object to the appropriation of the space upon which their livelihood relies, and to understand, communicate and legitimise their place in the world. © 2014, Landscape Research Group Ltd.

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