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La Paz J.L.,Center for Research in Agrigenomics | Pla M.,Center for Research in Agrigenomics | Pla M.,University of Girona | Centeno E.,Center for Research in Agrigenomics | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

The insect resistant maize YieldGard MON810 was studied to assess the extent to which introduction of a transgene may putatively alter the expression of endogenous genes by comparison of various GM lines vs. their non-transgenic counterparts. To assess the extent to which introduction of a transgene may putatively alter the expression of endogenous genes, GM lines of the insect resistant maize YieldGard MON810 were compared with non-transgenic counterparts. For a more in-depth study, high-throughput deep sequencing together with microarrays were used to compare the transcriptomes of immature embryos of the MON810 variety DKC6575, with a cryIA(b) transgene, and its near-isogenic variety Tietar, grown under controlled environmental conditions. This technique also allows characterisation of the transgenic mRNAs produced. 3′UTR-anchored mRNA-seq produced 1,802,571 sequences from DKC6575 and 1,170,973 from Tietar, which mapped to 14,712 and 14,854 unigenes, respectively. Up to 32 reads from the transgenic embryos matched to the synthetic cry1A(b) sequence, similar to medium-abundant mRNAs. Gene expression analysis, using the R-bioconductor packages EdgeR and DEseq, revealed 140 differentially expressed genes mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism and chromatin organisation. Comparison of the expression of 30 selected genes in two additional MON810 and near-isogenic variety pairs showed that most of them were differentially expressed in the three pairs of varieties analysed. Analysis of functional annotation and the precise moment of expression of the differentially expressed genes and physiological data obtained suggest a slight but significant delay in seed and plant maturation of MON810 plants. However, these transcriptomic changes were not associated to undesirable changes in the global phenotype or plant behaviour. Moreover, while most expression changes in MON810 immature embryos were maintained in other transgenic varieties, some gene expression was found to be modulated by the genetic background in which the transgene was introduced through conventional breeding programs. © 2014 La Paz et al.

Ferretti L.,University of Cologne | Ferretti L.,Center for Research in AgriGenomics | Disanto F.,University of Cologne | Wiehe T.,University of Cologne
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The coalescent with recombination is a fundamental model to describe the genealogical history of DNA sequence samples from recombining organisms. Considering recombination as a process which acts along genomes and which creates sequence segments with shared ancestry, we study the influence of single recombination events upon tree characteristics of the coalescent. We focus on properties such as tree height and tree balance and quantify analytically the changes in these quantities incurred by recombination in terms of probability distributions. We find that changes in tree topology are often relatively mild under conditions of neutral evolution, while changes in tree height are on average quite large. Our results add to a quantitative understanding of the spatial coalescent and provide the neutral reference to which the impact by other evolutionary scenarios, for instance tree distortion by selective sweeps, can be compared. © 2013 Ferretti et al.

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