Center for Education and Research on Ageing

Malaysia

Center for Education and Research on Ageing

Malaysia

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Mathieson S.,George Institute for Global Healt | Maher C.G.,George Institute for Global Healt | McLachlan A.J.,Center for Education and Research on Ageing | Latimer J.,George Institute for Global Healt | And 8 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2017

BACKGROUND: Sciatica can be disabling, and evidence regarding medical treatments is limited. Pregabalin is effective in the treatment of some types of neuropathic pain. This study examined whether pregabalin may reduce the intensity of sciatica. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pregabalin in patients with sciatica. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either pregabalin at a dose of 150 mg per day that was adjusted to a maximum dose of 600 mg per day or matching placebo for up to 8 weeks. The primary outcome was the leg-pain intensity score on a 10-point scale (with 0 indicating no pain and 10 the worst possible pain) at week 8; the leg-pain intensity score was also evaluated at week 52, a secondary time point for the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included the extent of disability, back-pain intensity, and quality-of-life measures at prespecified time points over the course of 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 209 patients underwent randomization, of whom 108 received pregabalin and 101 received placebo; after randomization, 2 patients in the pregabalin group were determined to be ineligible and were excluded from the analyses. At week 8, the mean unadjusted leg-pain intensity score was 3.7 in the pregabalin group and 3.1 in the placebo group (adjusted mean difference, 0.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.2 to 1.2; P = 0.19). At week 52, the mean unadjusted leg-pain intensity score was 3.4 in the pregabalin group and 3.0 in the placebo group (adjusted mean difference, 0.3; 95% CI, -0.5 to 1.0; P = 0.46). No significant between-group differences were observed with respect to any secondary outcome at either week 8 or week 52. A total of 227 adverse events were reported in the pregabalin group and 124 in the placebo group. Dizziness was more common in the pregabalin group than in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with pregabalin did not significantly reduce the intensity of leg pain associated with sciatica and did not significantly improve other outcomes, as compared with placebo, over the course of 8 weeks. The incidence of adverse events was significantly higher in the pregabalin group than in the placebo group. © 2017 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Hairi N.N.,University of Malaya | Cumming R.G.,Center for Education and Research on Ageing | Cumming R.G.,Concord Repatriation General Hospital | Naganathan V.,Center for Education and Research on Ageing | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between loss of muscle strength, mass, and quality and functional limitation and physical disability in older men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of older men participating in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP). SETTING: Elderly men living in a defined geographical region in Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand seven hundred five community-dwelling men aged 70 and older who participated in the baseline assessments of CHAMP. MEASUREMENTS: Upper and lower extremity strength were measured using dynamometers for grip and quadriceps strength. Appendicular skeletal lean mass was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Muscle quality was defined as the ratio of strength to mass in upper and lower extremities. For each parameter, subjects in the lowest 20% of the distribution were defined as below normal. Functional limitation was assessed according to self-report and objective lower extremity performance measures. Physical disability was measured according to self-report questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjusting for important confounders, the prevalence ratio (PR) for poor quadriceps strength and self-reported functional limitation was 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.10-2.40); for performance-based functional limitation the PR was 1.81 (95% CI=1.45-2.24). The adjusted PR for poor grip strength and physical disability in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) was 1.37 (95% CI=1.20-1.56). The adjusted PR for low skeletal lean mass (adjusted for fat mass) and physical disability in basic activities of daily living was 2.08 (95% CI=1.37-3.15). For muscle quality, the PR for lower extremity specific force and functional limitation and physical disability was stronger than upper extremity specific force. CONCLUSION: Muscle strength is the single best measure of age-related muscle change and is associated with physical disability in IADLs and functional limitation. © 2010, The American Geriatrics Society.


Shaheed C.A.,University of Sydney | Shaheed C.A.,University of Western Sydney | Maher C.G.,George Institute for Global Health | Maher C.G.,University of Sydney | And 4 more authors.
JAMA Internal Medicine | Year: 2016

IMPORTANCE Opioid analgesics are commonly used for low back pain, however, to our knowledge there has been no systematic evaluation of the effect of opioid dose and use of enrichment study design on estimates of treatment effect. OBJECTIVE To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of opioids in the management of back pain; and investigate the effect of opioid dose and use of an enrichment study design on treatment effect. DATA SOURCES Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and PsycINFO (inception to September 2015) with citation tracking from eligible randomized clinical trials (RCTs). STUDY SELECTION Placebo-controlled RCTs in any language. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled using a random effects model with strength of evidence assessed using the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measurewas pain. Pain and disability outcomes were converted to a common 0 to 100 scale, with effects greater than 20 points considered clinically important. RESULTS Of 20 included RCTs of opioid analgesics (with a total of 7925 participants), 13 trials (3419 participants) evaluated short-term effects on chronic low back pain, and no placebo-controlled trials enrolled patients with acute low back pain. In half of these 13 trials, at least 50% of participants withdrew owing to adverse events or lack of efficacy. There was moderate-quality evidence that opioid analgesics reduce pain in the short term; mean difference (MD), -10.1 (95%CI, -12.8 to -7.4). Meta-regression revealed a 12.0 point greater pain relief for every 1 log unit increase in morphine equivalent dose (P = .046). Clinically important pain relief was not observed within the dose range evaluated (40.0-240.0-mg morphine equivalents per day). There was no significant effect of enrichment study design. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE For people with chronic low back pain who tolerate the medicine, opioid analgesics provide modest short-term pain relief but the effect is not likely to be clinically important within guideline recommended doses. Evidence on long-term efficacy is lacking. The efficacy of opioid analgesics in acute low back pain is unknown. Copyright © 2016 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Jamsen K.M.,Monash University | Jamsen K.M.,Hornsby Ku ring gai Hospital | Bell J.S.,Monash University | Bell J.S.,Hornsby Ku ring gai Hospital | And 19 more authors.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society | Year: 2016

Objectives To investigate the effects of number of medications and Drug Burden Index (DBI) on transitions between frailty stages and death in community-dwelling older men. Design Cohort study. Setting Sydney, Australia. Participants Community-dwelling men aged 70 and older (N = 1,705). Measurements Self-reported questionnaires and clinic visits were conducted at baseline and 2 and 5 years. Frailty was assessed at all three waves according to the modified Fried frailty phenotype. The total number of regular prescription medications and DBI (a measure of exposure to sedative and anticholinergic medications) were calculated over the three waves. Data on mortality over 9 years were obtained. Multistate modeling was used to characterize the transitions across three frailty states (robust, prefrail, frail) and death. Results Each additional medication was associated with a 22% greater risk of transitioning from the robust state to death (adjusted 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.41). Every unit increase in DBI was associated with a 73% greater risk of transitioning from the robust state to the prefrail state (adjusted 95% CI = 1.30-2.31) and a 2.75 times greater risk of transitioning from the robust state to death (adjusted 95% CI = 1.60-4.75). There was no evidence of an adjusted association between total number of medications or DBI and the other transitions. Conclusion Although the possibility of confounding by indication cannot be excluded, additional medications were associated with greater risk of mortality in robust community-dwelling older men. Greater DBI was also associated with greater risk of death and transitioning from the robust state to the prefrail state. © 2016, the Authors Journal compilation.


Mirbagheri N.,University of Sydney | Mirbagheri N.,Sydney Colorectal and Pelvic Floor Center | Dunn G.,Concord Repatriation General Hospital | Naganathan V.,Center for Education and Research on Ageing | And 3 more authors.
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: GI dysfunction is common after abdominal surgery. However, assessment and diagnosis currently lack objective measurement. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and clinical use of bedside sonographic assessment of gastric emptying by measuring the time to complete emptying of a standard volume of ingested water in patients after colorectal surgery. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a single tertiary institution in Sydney. PATIENTS: Healthy volunteers (n = 30) were studied to establish a reference range. Gastric emptying was then measured in patients (n = 39) before and after colorectal surgery. INTERVENTION: Assessment of gastric emptying was performed on days 1 to 4 by measuring antral cross-sectional area every 10 minutes after ingestion of 250 mL of water. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The time to complete emptying of water was used as a surrogate measure of gastric emptying. Information concerning postoperative outcomes, GI symptoms, and recovery was also recorded. RESULTS: The median time to complete emptying of water for healthy volunteers was 20 minutes (range, 10-40 minutes). The study protocol was completed in 30 of 39 patients. The time to complete emptying of water on day 2 had the best discriminatory power to identify patients with ileus (sensitivity, 85.71%; specificity, 82.61%). Gastric emptying was normal in 20 of 30 (67%) patients, with only 1 case of ileus (false negative). These patients had less nausea (p = 0.0003), earlier intake of solid diet (p = 0.001), and shorter hospital stay (p = 0.040) compared with patients with abnormal gastric emptying. LIMITATIONS: Ultrasound is operator dependent with a learning curve. CONCLUSIONS: Bedside sonographic assessment of gastric emptying is feasible and reliable. Assessment of antral contents with a single ultrasound 40 minutes after ingestion of water enables classification of patients into those with normal and abnormal gastric emptying. When performed on postoperative day 2, it has good sensitivity/specificity for discriminating patients with ileus. © The ASCRS 2016.


PubMed | University of New South Wales, Professorial Surgery Unit and Center for Education and Research on Ageing
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vascular | Year: 2016

This study is a systematic review to determine the types of outcomes reported in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) studies of patients aged 80 and over. Specifically, it determines the types of patient-centered outcomes reported.MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 2000 to 2014 for studies on AAA surgery with outcome data on patients aged 80 and over. Outcomes were categorized according to Donabedians framework for health quality indicators, with further classification as procedural, complication, resource or patient-centered outcome indicators.Forty studies were reviewed. Patient-centered outcomes were infrequently reported (13%, n=5), with limited outcomes specifically relevant to older patients. No studies reported physical function, activities of daily living or cognition using validated assessment methods. Short-term mortality (95%, n=38) and complications (85%, n=34) were reported most frequently.Reporting of aortic surgery outcomes in patients aged 80 and over requires a focus upon outcomes of primary importance to people of this age.


Aitken S.J.,Professorial Surgery Unit | Naganathan V.,Center for Education and Research on Ageing | Blyth F.M.,University of Sydney
Vascular | Year: 2016

Purpose: This study is a systematic review to determine the types of outcomes reported in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) studies of patients aged 80 and over. Specifically, it determines the types of patient-centered outcomes reported. Method: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 2000 to 2014 for studies on AAA surgery with outcome data on patients aged 80 and over. Outcomes were categorized according to Donabedian’s framework for health quality indicators, with further classification as procedural, complication, resource or patient-centered outcome indicators. Findings: Forty studies were reviewed. Patient-centered outcomes were infrequently reported (13%, n=5), with limited outcomes specifically relevant to older patients. No studies reported physical function, activities of daily living or cognition using validated assessment methods. Short-term mortality (95%, n=38) and complications (85%, n=34) were reported most frequently. Conclusion: Reporting of aortic surgery outcomes in patients aged 80 and over requires a focus upon outcomes of primary importance to people of this age. © The Author(s) 2015.

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