Flores-Valdez M.A.,Center For Research And Assistance In Technology And Design Of The State Of Jalisco Ac |
Chopra S.,SRI International
Microbial Drug Resistance | Year: 2010
Tuberculosis is the most relevant infectious disease worldwide according to the estimates of the World Health Organization, and despite being a curable disease, it requires a 6-9-month therapy with multiple antibiotics. Intermittent drug therapy due to noncompliance or poor delivery of therapy promotes the emergence of bacterial strains showing resistance to multiple drugs and the rise of extremely drug-resistant strains. Moreover, increased antibiotic resistance has been observed for several microorganisms, including extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In vitro, cathelicidin induction results in enhanced mycobacterial clearance, and synthetic human neutrophil peptides had a rather modest bactericidal effect in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice. In vivo therapeutic efficacy of improved molecules that show enhanced bactericidal action in vitro remains to be tested. © Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Marquez-Aguirre A.L.,Center For Research And Assistance In Technology And Design Of The State Of Jalisco Ac |
Canales-Aguirre A.A.,Center For Research And Assistance In Technology And Design Of The State Of Jalisco Ac |
Padilla-Camberos E.,Center For Research And Assistance In Technology And Design Of The State Of Jalisco Ac |
Esquivel-Solis H.,Center For Research And Assistance In Technology And Design Of The State Of Jalisco Ac |
Diaz-Martinez N.E.,Center For Research And Assistance In Technology And Design Of The State Of Jalisco Ac
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research | Year: 2015
Diabetes mellitus represents a serious public health problem owing to its global prevalence in the last decade. The causes of this metabolic disease include dysfunction and/or insufficient number of β-cell. Existing diabetes mellitus treatments do not reverse or control the disease. Therefore, b-cell mass restoration might be a promising treatment. Several restoration approaches have been developed: inducing the proliferation of remaining insulin-producing cells, de novo islet formation from pancreatic progenitor cells (neogenesis), and converting non-β-cell within the pancreas to β-cell (transdifferentiation) are the most direct, simple, and least invasive ways to increase b-cell mass. However, their clinical significance is yet to be determined. Hypothetically, β-cell or islet transplantation methods might be curative strategies for diabetes mellitus; however, the scarcity of donors limits the clinical application of these approaches. Thus, alternative cell sources for b-cell replacement could include embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. However, most differentiated cells obtained using these techniques are functionally immature and show poor glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared with native β-cell. Currently, their clinical use is still hampered by ethical issues and the risk of tumor development post transplantation. In this review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge of mouse pancreas organogenesis, morphogenesis, and maturation, including the molecular mechanisms involved. We then discuss two possible approaches of b-cell mass restoration for diabetes mellitus therapy: b-cell regeneration and β-cell replacement. We critically analyze each strategy with respect to the accessibility of the cells, potential risk to patients, and possible clinical outcomes. © 2015, Associacao Brasileira de Divulgacao Cientifica. All rights reserved.