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The introduction of the technique of intracytoplasmic sperm injection to achieve fertilization, especially using surgically retrieved testicular or epididymal sperm from men with obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia, has revolutionized the field of assisted reproduction. The techniques for the retrieval of spermatozoa vary from relatively simple percutaneous sperm aspiration to open excision (testicular biopsy) and the more invasive Micro-TESE. The probability of retrieving spermatozoa can be as high as 100% in men with obstructive azoospermia (congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens, status post-vasectomy). However, in nonobstructive azoospermia, successful sperm retrieval has been reported in 10-100% of cases by various investigators. The surgical retrieval and cryopreservation of sperm, especially in men with non-obstructive azoospermia, to some extent ensures the availability of sperm at the time of intracytoplasmic sperm injection. In addition, this strategy can avoid unnecessary ovarian stimulation in those patients intending to undergo in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection with freshly retrieved testicular sperm when an absolute absence of sperm in the testis is identified. Several different methods for the cryopreservation of testicular and epididymal sperm are available. The choice of the container or carrier may be an important consideration and should take into account the number or concentration of the sperm in the final preparation. When the number of sperm in a testicular biopsy sample is extremely low (e.g., 1-20 total sperm available), the use of an evacuated zona pellucida to store the cryopreserved sperm has been shown to be an effective approach. © 2013 CLINICS.

Roque M.,Center for Reproductive Medicine | Esteves S.C.,Center for Male Reproduction
Asian Journal of Andrology | Year: 2016

A systematic review was conducted to identify and qualitatively analyze the methods as well as recommendations of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) and Best Practice Statements (BPS) concerning varicocele in the pediatric and adolescent population. An electronic search was performed with the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, and Scielo databases, as well as guidelines′ Web sites until September 2015. Four guidelines were included in the qualitative synthesis. In general, the recommendations provided by the CPG/BPS were consistent despite the existence of some gaps across the studies. The guidelines issued by the American Urological Association (AUA) and American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) did not provide evidence-based levels for the recommendations given. Most of the recommendations given by the European Association of Urology (EAU) and European Society of Pediatric Urology (ESPU) were derived from nonrandomized clinical trials, retrospective studies, and expert opinion. Among all CPG/BPS, only one was specifically designed for the pediatric population. The studied guidelines did not undertake independent cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit analysis. The main objectives of these guidelines were to translate the best evidence into practice and provide a framework of standardized care while maintaining clinical autonomy and physician judgment. However, the limitations identified in the CPG/BPS for the diagnosis and management of varicocele in children and adolescents indicate ample opportunities for research and future incorporation of higher quality standards in patient care. © 2016 AJA, SIMM & SJTU.

Dirican E.K.,Center for Reproductive Medicine | Kalender Y.,Gazi University
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2012

Dichlorvos is an organophosphorus insecticide that is used worldwide for pest control in agriculture and household use. Vitamins C and E are potential antioxidants protecting cells from oxidative stress. Vitamin C. +. vitamin E, dichlorvos, a combination of vitamin C. +. vitamin E. +. dichlorvos, or corn oil (control) were given to rats via oral gavage for 7. weeks. Body and testis weights, sperm parameters, hormone levels, histo- and cytopathological changes in testes were investigated at the end of 24. h and the 4th and 7th weeks comparatively with the control group. Body and testis weights, sperm morphology, FSH, LH, and testosterone levels were decreased significantly at the end of 4th and 7th weeks in the dichlorvos- and vitamins. +. dichlorvos-treated groups. A statistically significant decline in sperm motility and testosterone levels occurred by the end of 7th week in the dichlorvos- and vitamins. +. dichlorvos-treated groups. Light and electron microscopy revealed necrosis, edema and cellular damage in testicular tissues of the dichlorvos- and vitamins. +. dichlorvos-treated rats at the end of 4th and 7th weeks. In conclusion, dichlorvos caused subacute and subchronic reproductive toxicity, but vitamins did not confer protection. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

De Vos M.,Center for Reproductive Medicine | Smitz J.,Laboratory of Clinical Chemistry and Radioimmunology | Woodruff T.K.,Northwestern University
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Enhanced long-term survival rates of young women with cancer and advances in reproductive medicine and cryobiology have culminated in an increased interest in fertility preservation methods in girls and young women with cancer. Present data suggest that young patients with cancer should be referred for fertility preservation counselling quickly to help with their coping process. Although the clinical application of novel developments, including oocyte vitrification and oocyte maturation in vitro, has resulted in reasonable success rates in assisted reproduction programmes, experience with these techniques in the setting of fertility preservation is in its infancy. It is hoped that these and other approaches, some of which are still regarded as experimental (eg, ovarian tissue cryopreservation, pharmacological protection against gonadotoxic agents, in-vitro follicle growth, and follicle transplantation) will be optimised and become established within the next decade. Unravelling the complex mechanisms of activation and suppression of follicle growth will not only expand the care of thousands of women diagnosed with cancer, but also inform the care of millions of women confronted with reduced reproductive fitness because of ageing.

Roque M.,Center for Reproductive Medicine
Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics | Year: 2015

Purpose: This publication will evaluate the available evidence in the literature comparing fresh embryo transfer (ET) and elective frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) regarding the possible interference of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) in implantation and endometrial receptivity, IVF safety, and obstetric and perinatal outcomes.Methods: We performed a review in the literature of the available evidence comparing fresh to elective FET (freeze-all policy).Results: The improvements made in cryopreservation techniques have led to few or no detrimental effects to the embryo and have resulted in no consequences to the offspring when compared to fresh embryos; this has allowed reproductive practitioners to create the freeze-all policy (when all viable embryos are electively cryopreserved in the fresh cycle and transferred in a posterior cycle). There are increasing concerns about the adverse effects associated with COS over the endometrial and uterine environments, as well as with the safety of COS in pregnancies that have originated from fresh ET during in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments. COS may contribute to modifications in the endometrium, which might be related to poorer outcomes when fresh ET is performed. It has been suggested that obstetric and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies resulting from fresh ET are poorer when compared with those that occur after FET. In cycles with fresh ET, there is still a risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS).Conclusion: There is growing evidence in the literature suggesting better IVF outcomes, and decreased obstetric and perinatal morbidity when adopting the freeze-all policy instead of fresh ET. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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