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Ponnampalam E.N.,University of New England of Australia | Ponnampalam E.N.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Butler K.L.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | McDonagh M.B.,University of New England of Australia | And 4 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2012

The relationship between muscle vitamin E, forms of iron, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the redness of meat (retail display) at days 3 to 4 post slaughter from lambs offered 2 different diets was examined. Meat redness was positively related to vitamin E and heme iron and negatively related to total n-3, total n-6 and total PUFA content. However, after adjusting for the effects of vitamin E and heme iron content, there was no indication of any residual relationship between redness at days 3-4 of retail display and total n-3, total n-6 or total PUFA. This indicates that the relationship between PUFA and redness in meat is mediated through the effects of heme iron and vitamin E in the muscle. It appears that the level of highly oxidisable PUFAs in muscle tissues do not play a major role in maintenance of redness at days 3-4 of retail display, but the level of vitamin E and heme iron content are important. © 2011. Source

Pearce K.L.,Murdoch University | Rosenvold K.,Agresearch Ltd. | Andersen H.J.,Arla Foods | Andersen H.J.,University of Aarhus | Hopkins D.L.,Center for Red Meat and Sheep Development
Meat Science | Year: 2011

This paper reviews current knowledge on the distribution and mobility of water in muscle (myowater) ante- and post mortem and factors affecting these in relation to fresh meat quality parameters; water-holding capacity (WHC), tenderness and juiciness. NMR transverse relaxometry (T2) using bench-top Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LF-NMR) has characterised myowater distribution and mobility as well as structural features in meat which directly affect WHC. The current literature demonstrates that WHC is correlated to the water located outside the myofibrillar network (extra-myofibrillar). This review identifies the critical stages which affect the translocation of water into the extra-myofibrillar space and thus the potential for decreased WHC during proteolysis (the conversion of muscle to meat). This review discusses how the intrinsic properties of the water held within the meat could contribute to juiciness and tenderness. Tenderness has been shown to correlate to T2, however breed and species differences made it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Further understanding of the inherent water properties of fresh meat and the factors affecting water distribution and mobility using NMR technologies will increase the understanding of WHC and tenderisation of fresh meat. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Jay N.P.,Lincoln University at Christchurch | van de Ven R.J.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | Hopkins D.L.,Center for Red Meat and Sheep Development
Meat Science | Year: 2014

Coopworth cross lambs born over three years were examined in this study. Differences between two machines; a computer tomography (CT) scanner and a VIAScan® system for the estimation of carcase lean weight in lamb carcases was examined. The CT scanner provided a significantly higher estimate of carcase lean. The rank correlation (0.84) between the CT scanner and the VIAScan® system for the prediction of carcase lean was significant, but there was a different ranking for carcase lean depending on which machine was used. This has important ramifications for the use of VIAScan® data in the New Zealand Sheep Improvement Ltd genetic programme. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Pearce K.L.,Murdoch University | Van De Ven R.,Orange Agricultural Institute | Mudford C.,Realcold Milmech | Warner R.D.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries | And 4 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2010

The efficacies of electrical stimulation practices at Australian abattoirs that process significant proportions of Australian lamb and sheep meat were assessed. Several abattoirs used medium-voltage electrical stimulation system (MVS) units suboptimally and many carcasses at these abattoirs exhibited a poor rate of pH decline and, consequently, a low proportion of carcasses attained pH 6 at a carcass temperature of 18-35°C, according to Sheep Meat Eating Quality pHtemperature guidelines as adopted by Meat Standards Australia. In the present communication, we describe the causes of suboptimal results with electrical stimulation and discuss procedures for optimising the stimulation dose delivered by MVS units. Carcass pH responses to various levels of current and pulse width were assessed to determine the best MVS settings for individual abattoirs. The MVS units at the abattoirs involved in the present study have now been programmed for optimal efficacy and carcass quality will be monitored on an ongoing basis. Evaluation of methods for assessing the proportion of carcasses that fall within the optimum pHtemperature window showed that a random regression model is more accurate than the current approach. © 2010 CSIRO. Source

Hopkins D.L.,Center for Red Meat and Sheep Development | Toohey E.S.,Industry and Investment NSW Primary Industries | Kerr M.J.,Center for Red Meat and Sheep Development | Van De Ven R.,Orange Agricultural Institute
Animal Production Science | Year: 2011

A comparison of the peak shear force results for a Lloyd texture analyser and a G2 Tenderometer was undertaken using both sheep and beef meat. The G2 is a new version of the Tenderometer developed originally by the Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand and uses an electric linear motor to compress the sample, but still retains the blunt wedge-shaped 'tooth'. By comparison the Lloyd texture analyser can be used with a shearing head derived from the WarnerBratzler type of head. Analysis of sheep samples (n = 148) and beef samples (n = 192) of the same size revealed that the average G2 Tenderometer shear force results were ∼1.3 times those for the Lloyd when testing less tender samples. An examination of the repeatability within cook block samples for these less tender sub-samples revealed a coefficient of variation of ∼12% for both the Lloyd and Tenderometer instruments. For the more tender samples, the average results for the two instruments did not differ significantly, but for less tender samples it was observed that the results for the Tenderometer were more variable than those for the Lloyd texture analyser. Data on shear force generated by the G2 are not equivalent to that generated by the Lloyd and use of the G2 requires more replicates to be tested per sample to achieve an equivalent level of precision to that of a Lloyd texture analyser. As a guide only, G2 Tenderometer values can by multiplied by 0.75-0.80 to give approximate Lloyd results if required for samples of average toughness, otherwise the following model can be used Lloyd = 2.49 Tenderometer 0.72. Source

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