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Astuti D.,Center for Rare Diseases and Personalised Medicine | Morris M.R.,Center for Rare Diseases and Personalised Medicine | Morris M.R.,University of Wolverhampton | Cooper W.N.,Center for Rare Diseases and Personalised Medicine | And 19 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2012

Perlman syndrome is a congenital overgrowth syndrome inherited in an autosomal recessive manner that is associated with Wilms tumor susceptibility. We mapped a previously unknown susceptibility locus to 2q37.1 and identified germline mutations in DIS3L2, a homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe dis3 gene, in individuals with Perlman syndrome. Yeast dis3 mutant strains have mitotic abnormalities. Yeast Dis3 and its human homologs, DIS3 and DIS3L1, have exoribonuclease activity and bind to the core RNA exosome complex. DIS3L2 has a different intracellular localization and lacks the PIN domain found in DIS3 and DIS3L1; nevertheless, we show that DIS3L2 has exonuclease activity. DIS3L2 inactivation was associated with mitotic abnormalities and altered expression of mitotic checkpoint proteins. DIS3L2 overexpression suppressed the growth of human cancer cell lines, and knockdown enhanced the growth of these cells. We also detected evidence of DIS3L2 mutations in sporadic Wilms tumor. These observations suggest that DIS3L2 has a critical role in RNA metabolism and is essential for the regulation of cell growth and division. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Bas V.N.,SAMI Health | Cangul H.,Center for Rare Diseases and Personalised Medicine | Agladioglu S.Y.,SAMI Health | Kendall M.,University of Sfax | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2012

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most commonly encountered endocrinological birth defect, with an incidence of approximately 1 in 3000 - 4000 live births. It could be sporadic or familial as well as goitrous or non-goitrous. Inactivating mutations of TSHR, which is one of the genes responsible for non-goitrogenic congenital hypothyroidism, are mostly inherited autosomal recessively and result in a wide clinical spectrum owing to the extent of receptor function loss. Here, we report detailed clinical features of two CH cases with TSHR mutations. The first case was diagnosed before the initiation of the national screening program and had a severe clinical phenotype associated with a homozygous inactivating TSHR mutation (P556R), whereas the second case was diagnosed after the introduction of the national screening program and showed a mild clinical presentation and carried another homozygous missense mutation (P162A) in the TSHR gene. We compared the clinical features of our cases with those of previously reported patients with TSHR mutations to enhance the genotype/phenotype correlations between these mutations and corresponding clinical phenotypes.

Slater A.A.,Center for Rare Diseases and Personalised Medicine | Slater A.A.,University of Birmingham | Alokail M.,Center for Rare Diseases and Personalised Medicine | Alokail M.,University of Birmingham | And 9 more authors.
Epigenetics | Year: 2013

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for around 3% of cancers in the UK, and both incidence and mortality are increasing with the aging population. RCC can be divided into several subtypes: conventional RCC (the most common, comprising 75% of all cases), papillary RCC (15%) and chromophobe RCC (5%). Renal oncocytoma is a benign tumor and accounts for 5% of RCC. Cancer and epigenetics are closely associated, with DNA hypermethylation being widely accepted as a feature of many cancers. In this study the DNA methylation profiles of chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytomas were investigated by utilizing the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Cancer-specific hypermethylation was identified in 9.4% and 5.2% of loci in chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytoma samples, respectively, while the majority of the genome was hypomethylated. Thirty (hypermethylated) and 41 (hypomethylated) genes were identified as differentially methylated between chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytomas (p < 0.05). Pathway analysis identified some of the differentially hypermethylated genes to be involved in Wnt (EN2), MAPK (CACNG7) and TGFβ (AMH) signaling, Hippo pathway (NPHP4), and cell death and apoptosis (SPG20, NKX6-2, PAX3 and BAG2). In addition, we analyzed ccRCC and papillary RCC data available from The Cancer Genome Atlas portal to identify differentially methylated loci in chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytoma in relation to the other histological subtypes, providing insight into the pathology of RCC subtypes and classification of renal tumors. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.

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