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Hôpital-Camfrout, France

de Krijger R.E.,Erasmus Medical Center | Bertherat J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Bertherat J.,University of Paris Descartes | Bertherat J.,Center for Rare Adrenal Diseases
Hormones and Cancer | Year: 2016

For the clinician, despite its rarity, adrenocortical cancer is a heterogeneous tumor both in term of steroid excess and tumor evolution. For patient management, it is crucial to have an accurate vision of this heterogeneity, in order to use a correct tumor classification. Pathology is the best way to classify operated adrenocortical tumors: to recognize their adrenocortical nature and to differentiate benign from malignant tumors. Among malignant tumors pathology also aims at prognosis assessment. Although progress has being made for prognosis assessment, there is still a need for improvement. Recent studies have established the value of Ki67 for adrenocortical cancer (ACC) prognostication, aiming also at standardization to reduce variability. The use of genomics to study adrenocortical tumors gives a very new insight in their pathogenesis and molecular classification. Genomics studies of ACC give now a clear description of the mRNA (transcriptome) and miRNA expression profile, as well as chromosomal and methylation alterations. Exome sequencing also established firmly the list of the main ACC driver genes. Interestingly, genomics study of ACC also revealed subtypes of malignant tumors with different pattern of molecular alterations, associated with different outcome. This leads to a new vision of adrenocortical tumors classification based on molecular analysis. Interestingly, these molecular classifications meet also the results of pathological analysis. This opens new perspectives on the development and use of various molecular tools to classify, along with pathological analysis, ACC, and guides patient management at the area of precision medicine. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Yu B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Yu B.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Yu B.,University of Paris Descartes | Ragazzon B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 9 more authors.
Hormone and Metabolic Research | Year: 2012

Various molecular and cellular alterations of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway have been observed in endocrine tumors. Since protein kinase A (PKA) is a central key component of the cAMP pathway, studies of the alterations of PKA subunits in endocrine tumors reveal new aspects of the mechanisms of cAMP pathway alterations in human diseases. So far, most alterations have been observed for the regulatory subunits, mainly PRKAR1A and to a lower extent, PRKAR2B. One of the best examples of such alteration today is the multiple neoplasia syndrome Carney complex (CNC). The most common endocrine gland manifestations of CNC are pituitary GH-secreting adenomas, thyroid tumors, testicular tumors, and ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). Heterozygous germline inactivating mutations of the PKA regulatory subunit RIα gene (PRKAR1A) are observed in about two-third of CNC patients, and also in patients with isolated PPNAD. PRKAR1A is considered as a tumor suppressor gene. Interestingly, these mutations can also be observed as somatic alterations in sporadic endocrine tumors. More than 120 different PRKAR1A mutations have been found today. Most of them lead to an unstable mutant mRNA, which will be degraded by nonsense mediated mRNA decay. In vitro and in vivo functional studies are in progress to understand the mechanisms of endocrine tumor development due to PKA regulatory subunits inactivation. PRKAR1A mutations stimulate in most models PKA activity, mimicking in some way cAMP pathway constitutive activation. Cross-talks with other signaling pathways summarized in this review have been described and might participate in endocrine tumorigenesis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York. Source


Assie G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Assie G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Assie G.,University of Paris Descartes | Giordano T.J.,University of Michigan | And 5 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Transcriptome studies of adrenocortical tumors have shown clear differences between adenomas and carcinomas and identified two subgroups of carcinomas with different prognoses. This review focuses on how transcriptomes have enriched our knowledge about genes previously identified by classical candidate gene approaches, uncovered novel genes relevant to adrenocortical tumor biology, helped to identify and understand specific pathway alterations, and advanced the overall translational relevance of this field of research. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Espiard S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Espiard S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Espiard S.,University of Paris Descartes | Ragazzon B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 6 more authors.
Hormone and Metabolic Research | Year: 2014

Stimulation of the cAMP pathway by adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) is essential for adrenal cortex maintenance, glucocorticoid and adrenal androgens synthesis, and secretion. Various molecular and cellular alterations of the cAMP pathway have been observed in endocrine tumors. Protein kinase A (PKA) is a central key component of the cAMP pathway. Molecular alterations of PKA subunits have been observed in adrenocortical tumors. PKA molecular defects can be germline in hereditary disorders or somatic in sporadic tumors. Heterozygous germline inactivating mutations of the PKA regulatory subunit RIα gene (PRKAR1A) can be observed in patients with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CS) due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PRKAR1A is considered as a tumor suppressor gene. Interestingly, these mutations can also be observed as somatic alterations in sporadic cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Germline gene duplication of the catalytic subunits Cα (PRKACA) has been observed in patients with PPNAD. Furthermore, exome sequencing revealed recently activating somatic mutations of PRKACA in about 40% of cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. In vitro and in vivo functional studies help in the progress to understand the mechanisms of adrenocortical tumors development due to PKA regulatory subunits alterations. All these alterations are observed in benign oversecreting tumors and are mimicking in some way cAMP pathway constitutive activation. On the long term, unraveling these alterations will open new strategies of pharmacological treatment targeting the cAMP pathway in adrenal tumors and cortisol-secretion disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag K.G. Stuttgart. Source


Espiard S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Espiard S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Espiard S.,University of Paris Descartes | Bertherat J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 3 more authors.
Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America | Year: 2015

Advances in genomics accelerated greatly progress in the study of the genetics adrenocortical tumors. Bilateral nodular hyperplasias causing Cushing's syndrome are frequently caused by germline alterations leading to cAMP/PKA pathway activation (micronodular) and ARMC5 inactivation (macronodular). Somatic mutations of β-catenin and PRKACA are observed in non secreting or cortisol producing adenomas, respectively. Alterations of the β-catenin (CTNN1B, ZNFR3) or TP53 pathways are found in carcinomas. Mutations in cancers are more common in aggressive tumors and correlate with transcriptome or methylation profiles. Identification of these alterations helps to refine the molecular classification of these tumors and to develop molecular diagnostic tools. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

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