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Kaiser J.R.,Baylor College of Medicine | Bai S.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Gibson N.,University of Central Arkansas | Holland G.,University of Central Arkansas | And 5 more authors.
JAMA Pediatrics | Year: 2015

Importance Prolonged neonatal hypoglycemia is associated with poor long-term neurocognitive function. However, little is known about an association between early transient newborn hypoglycemia and academic achievement. Objective To determine if early (within the first 3 hours of life) transient hypoglycemia (a single initial low glucose concentration, followed by a second value above a cutoff) is associated with subsequent poor academic performance. Design, Setting, and Participants A retrospective population-based cohort study of all infants born between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 1998, at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences who had at least 1 recorded glucose concentration (a universal newborn glucose screening policy was in effect) was conducted. Medical record data from newborns with normoglycemia or transient hypoglycemia were matched with their student achievement test scores in 2008 from the Arkansas Department of Education and anonymized. Logistic regression models were developed to evaluate the association between transient hypoglycemia and school-age achievement test proficiency based on perinatal factors. Common hypoglycemia cutoffs of a glucose level less than 35mg/dL (primary) and less than 40 and 45mg/dL (secondary) were investigated. All 1943 normoglycemic and transiently hypoglycemic infants (23-42 weeks' gestation) were eligible for inclusion in the study. Infants with prolonged hypoglycemia, congenital anomalies, or chromosomal abnormalities were excluded from the study. Exposure Hypoglycemia as a newborn. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcomewas proficiency on fourth-grade literacy and mathematics achievement tests at age 10 years.We hypothesized a priori that newborns with early transient hypoglycemia would be less proficient on fourth-grade achievement tests compared with normoglycemic newborns. Results Perinatal data were matched with fourth-grade achievement test scores in 1395 newborn-student pairs (71.8%). Transient hypoglycemia (glucose level <35, <40, and <45 mg/dL) was observed in 6.4%(89 of 1395), 10.3%(143 of 1395), and 19.3%(269 of 1395) of newborns, respectively. After controlling for gestational age group, race, sex, multifetal gestation, insurance status, maternal educational level and socioeconomic status, and gravidity, transient hypoglycemia was associated with decreased probability of proficiency on literacy and mathematics fourth-grade achievement tests. For the 3 hypoglycemia cutoffs, the adjusted odds ratios (95%CIs) for literacy were 0.49 (0.28-0.83), 0.43 (0.28-0.67), and 0.62 (0.45-0.85), respectively, and the adjusted odds ratios (95%CIs) for mathematics were 0.49 (0.29-0.82), 0.51 (0.34-0.78), and 0.78 (0.57-1.08), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance Early transient newborn hypoglycemiawas associated with lower achievement test scores at age 10 years. Given that our findings are serious and contrary to expert opinion, the results need to be validated in other populations before universal newborn glucose screening should be adopted. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Hariri S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Unger E.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Schafer S.,Center for Public Health Practice | Niccolai L.M.,The New School | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2015

Background: Two currently available vaccines targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 could prevent 70% of cervical cancers and 50% of high-grade cervical lesions. Next-generation vaccines against additional types, such as a candidate 9-valent vaccine against HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58, could further reduce HPV-associated disease burden.Methods: HPV was typed in archived tissues from women ages 21 to 39 years residing in five catchment areas in the United States with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 and adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN2+) using L1 consensus PCR and type-specific hybridization. Type attribution was estimated using weights to account for lesions with multiple types detected.Results: From 2008 to 2011, 5,498 of 6,306 (87.2%) specimens obtained from 8,469 women with CIN2+ had valid typing results; HPV DNA was detected in 97.3%. Overall, 50.1% of lesions were attributable to HPV16/18, ranging from 50.3% to 52.4% among those ages 21 to 34 years, and significantly declined in 35 to 39 year-olds (43.5%). HPV16/18 attribution was higher in non-Hispanic whites (56.4%) versus racial/ethnic minorities (range, 41.8%-45.9%; P < 0.001). HPV31/33/45/52/58 attribution was 25.0% overall and increased with age (P < 0.001). A higher proportion of CIN2+ was attributable to HPV31/33/45/52/58 in non-Hispanic black (29.9%), Hispanic (29.2%), and Asian (33.1%) women compared with non-Hispanic whites (22.8%; P < 0.001).Conclusions: Overall, 75% of lesions were attributable to 7 oncogenic HPV types: 50% to HPV16/18 and 25% to HPV31/33/45/52/58. HPV16/18 had the largest attributable fraction in CIN2+ across all subpopulations, although to a lesser extent in older women and racial/ethnic minorities.Impact: Vaccines targeting additional oncogenic HPV types could prevent more high-grade cervical lesions, especially among racial/ethnic minorities. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

Zilversmit L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Sappenfield O.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Zotti M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | McGehee M.A.,Center for Public Health Practice
Women's Health Issues | Year: 2014

Purpose: Having an emergency plan may reduce negative effects of disaster on the health of postpartum women and their infants. However, little is known about the prevalence of emergency plans among postpartum women. In 2009, Arkansas added a question to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System surveillance system about whether women who gave birth that year had an emergency plan. In this study, we first describe the sociodemographic characteristics, disaster experience, and region of residence of postpartum women in Arkansas who indicated that they had an emergency plan for their families in 2009, and second, examine associations between sociodemographic characteristics and disaster experience and the presence of an emergency plan. Methods: Multivariable logistic regression (n=1,173) was conducted to examine associations between maternal race/ethnicity, sociodemographic characteristics, region of residence, disaster experience, and having a disaster plan. We adjusted for maternal education, federal poverty level, and family size in our final model. Findings: Forty-eight percent (n=559) of women reported having an emergency plan. Hispanic women were less likely to report having a plan compared with non-Hispanic White women (n=102 [10%]; adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-0.9). Families with five or more members were more likely to have a plan compared with smaller families (n=123 [11%]; aPR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6). Conclusions: Policymakers and public health practitioners can use these results to promote emergency planning among postpartum women in Arkansas, with special outreach to postpartum women who are Hispanic or have smaller families. © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Source

Martinez M.E.,University of California at San Diego | Jacobs E.T.,University of Arizona | Baron J.A.,Arizona Cancer Center | Marshall J.R.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2012

Nutritional supplementation is now a multibillion-dollar industry, and about half of all US adults take supplements. Supplement use is fueled in part by the belief that nutritional supplements can ward off chronic disease, including cancer, although several expert committees and organizations have concluded that there is little to no scientific evidence that supplements reduce cancer risk. To the contrary, there is now evidence that high doses of some supplements increase cancer risk. Despite this evidence, marketing claims by the supplement industry continue to imply anticancer benefits. Insufficient government regulation of the marketing of dietary supplement products may continue to result in unsound advice to consumers. Both the scientific community and government regulators need to provide clear guidance to the public about the use of dietary supplements to lower cancer risk. © The Author(s) 2012. Source

Bondurant K.L.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Harvey S.,Center for Public Health Practice | Klimberg S.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Kadlubar S.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Phillips M.M.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Breast Journal | Year: 2011

Breast cancer continues to be among the most common cancers affecting women in the United States. Researchers investigating the area are turning their attention to novel prevention, detection, and treatment options. Recent molecular epidemiology research has highlighted the effects of both genetic and environmental exposures on an individual's risk of developing breast cancer and predicted response to treatment. Cohort designs are a potentially powerful tool that researchers can utilize to investigate the genetic and environmental factors affecting breast cancer risk and treatment options. This paper describes the recruitment of a community-based cohort of women in a southern state. The Spit for the Cure Cohort (SFCC), being developed by researchers at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (Little Rock, AR), is designed to be representative of the female population of the state with oversampling of women with a history of breast cancer and women of color. To date, the SFCC includes more than 14,000 women recruited from all 75 counties of Arkansas and six neighboring states. Methods used to recruit and maintain the cohort and collect both questionnaire data and genetic material are described, as are the demographic characteristics of the cohort as it currently exists. The recruitment methods utilized for the SFCC are rapidly building a breast cancer cohort and providing a large biorepository for molecular epidemiology research. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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